Vera Figner


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Vera Figner
Birthday
BirthplaceKazan, Russian Empire
Died

Figner, Vera Nikolaevna

 

(married name Filippova). Born June 25 (July 7), 1852, in the village of Khristoforovka, Tetiushi District, Kazan Province; died June 15, 1942, in Moscow. Russian revolutionary. Narodnik (Populist) and member of the Executive Committee of the People’s Will (Narodnaia volia). Writer.

Born into a gentry family, Figner studied at the Rodionov Institute for Young Noble Ladies in Kazan from 1863 to 1869 and at the faculty of medicine of the University of Zurich from 1872 to 1875. In 1873 she joined the Fritsche, a revolutionary women’s circle whose members later formed the nucleus of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organization. In December 1875 she returned to Russia, and in 1876 she joined the Narodnik Separatist group (including among its members Iu. N. Bogdanovich), which collaborated with Land and Liberty (Zemlia i volia). That same year she participated in the Kazan Demonstration in St. Petersburg. From 1877 to 1879, while working as a feldsher, she conducted propaganda in villages in Samara and Saratov provinces. In 1879 she took part in Land and Liberty’s Voronezh Congress.

After Land and Liberty split into two independent organizations in 1879, Figner became a member of the Executive Committee of the People’s Will. She conducted revolutionary propaganda among the intelligentsia, students, and officers in St. Petersburg, Kronstadt, and the south of Russia. She also helped found the military organization of the People’s Will and helped plan the assassination attempts on Emperor Alexander II in Odessa (1880) and St. Petersburg (1881). After the assassination of the emperor on Mar. 1, 1881, she performed revolutionary work in Odessa. In 1882, as the only member of the Executive Committee of the People’s Will remaining in Russia, she attempted to revitalize the organization, which had been suppressed by the police.

Figner was arrested in Kharkov on Feb. 10, 1883, having been betrayed by S. P. Degaev. In the Trial of the 14 (1884) she was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. She spent 20 years in solitary confinement in the ShlisseFburg Fortress. While in prison, she wrote poetry (1st ed., Poems, 1906). In 1904 she was exiled—first to Arkhangel’sk Province, later to Kazan Province, and finally to Nizhny Novgorod.

In 1906, Figner went abroad, where she organized a campaign in defense of political prisoners in Russia. She lectured in various European cities, raised money, and wrote a brochure about Russian prisons that was translated into many languages. She supported the Socialist Revolutionaries from 1907 to 1909, but left the party after the treachery of E. F. Azef had been exposed. She returned to Russia in 1915.

After the October Revolution of 1917, Figner engaged in literary work and completed her book of reminiscences, begun abroad, entitled Remembered Work (1st ed., parts 1–3, 1921–22), one of the best Russian memoirs. The book brought Figner world renown and was translated into many foreign languages.

A member of the Society of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles, Figner collaborated on the journal Katorga i ssylka. She wrote biographies of members of the People’s Will and articles on the history of the revolutionary movement in Russia during the 1870’s and 1880’s. Figner’s heroic revolutionary past, unshakable principles, and honesty gave her great moral authority.

WORKS

Poln. sobr. soch., 2nd ed., vols. 1–7. Moscow, 1932.
Zapechatlennyi trud, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1964.

REFERENCES

Matveeva, I. E. V. Figner. Moscow, 1961.
Pavliuchenko, E. A. V. Figner. Moscow, 1963.

E. A. PAVLIUCHENKO

References in periodicals archive ?
Both Francis Wcislo and Lynne Ann Hartnett bring literary tools to the exhaustive documentation two of the key personages of the late Russian Empire, Sergei Witte and Vera Figner, left about their own lives.
This, in turn, is the context for the lives of Vera Figner and Sergei Witte, and this context structures the arguments that Lynne Ann Fiartnett and Francis Wcislo, respectively, seek to make about them.
Her compatriot, the noblewoman-turned-radical Vera Figner, during her own trial for aiding in the tsar's assassination and other terrorist acts, declared, according to her Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1991), "The most essential part of the program.
Most notably, the veteran revolutionary and former Narodnaya volya member Vera Figner publicly rebuffed an attempt by Yaroslavsky to present her with OPK membership to mark her eightieth birthday in 1932, referring to the society's refusal to oppose the use of the death penalty in the USSR (p368).
Mondry might, for instance, have made use of the memoirs of Vera Figner, given Uspenskii's admiration of this prominent Populist revolutionary, indeed his apparent fantasies about her.
In exchange for leniency, he would betray his comrades, including Vera Figner, now de facto head of "The Will of the People.
Until now, translated sources have given Anglophone readers a curious picture of the Russian autobiographical tradition, with the selection of twentieth-century material creating the impression that female memoirists dominated after 1900, and the choice of nineteenth-century material, on the other hand, suggesting that few women contributed to the genre, excluding always such exceptional figures as the radical populist Vera Figner, and the pioneering woman mathematician Sof'ya Kovalevskaya.
When the tsarist police apprehended Vera Figner in February 1883, she was the Russian state's Enemy Number One.