Vera Zasulich


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Zasulich, Vera Ivanovna

 

(party and literary pseudonyms—Velika, Velika Dmitrievna, Vera Ivanovna, V. Ivanov, N. Karelin, Starshaia sestra [Older Sister], Tetka [Auntie], and V. I., among others). Born July 27 (Aug. 8), 1849, in the village of Mikhailovka, Smolensk Province; died May 8, 1919, in Petrograd. Important in the Russian revolutionary movement. Born a member of the dvorianstvo (nobility or gentry).

In 1867, Zasulich graduated from a boarding school in Moscow and passed the qualifying examination for teachers. Upon arriving in St. Petersburg in 1868, she involved herself in revolutionary circles. In connection with the Nechaev case she was imprisoned in 1869 and then sent into exile upon release in 1871. She went underground in 1875. When the group of Narodnik-oriented buntars (Bakuninists) which she had joined in Kiev was destroyed, she moved in 1877 to St. Petersburg. On Jan. 24, 1878, Zasulich fired a shot at the St. Petersburg governor, F. F. Trepov, on whose orders the imprisoned revolutionary Bogoliubov (A. Emel’ianov) had been flogged. She was found not guilty by a jury (A. F. Koni, chairman of the jury; P. A. Aleksandrov, counsel for the defense) on Mar. 31, 1878, a verdict that won the unanimous approval of public opinion. Not wanting to be arrested again (the order for her arrest was issued shortly after the verdict), Zasulich emigrated. In 1879 she returned to Russia and aligned herself with Black Partition. Emigrating again in 1880, she became the foreign representative for the Red Cross and People’s Will.

In 1883, Zasulich, shifting to Marxism, became a member of the Liberation of Labor group; she translated works by K. Marx and F. Engels and carried on a correspondence with them. At the end of 1899 she entered Russia, illegally, to establish ties with Social Democratic groups. She became a member of the editorial staffs oflskra andZaria in 1900 and participated in the congresses of the Second International. At the Second Congress of the RSDLP (1903) she aligned herself with the Iskraists from the minority; after the Congress she became one of the leaders of Menshevism. During the years of reaction (1907-10) she was a “liquidator.” She was a social chauvinist during World War I. In 1917 she was a member of the Menshevik group Edinstyo (Unity). She received the October Revolution of 1917 with hostility.

Zasulich wrote a history of the International Workingmen’s Association, works on J.-J. Rousseau and Voltaire, and articles, in the form of literary critiques, on D. I. Pisarev, N. A. Dobroliubov, N. G. Chernyshevskii, and S. M. Kravchinskii (Stepniak). Her works of literary criticism carried on the traditions of revolutionary-democratic literature. V. I. Lenin, while strongly criticizing Zasulich’ s Menshevik position, offered high praise of her earlier services to the revolutionary cause.

WORKS

Vospominaniia. Moscow, 1931.
Stat’i o russkoi literature. Moscow, 1960.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed. (See Index Volume, part 2.)
K. Marks, F. Engel’s i revoliutsionnaia Rossiia. Moscow, 1967.
Koni, A. F. “Vospominaniia o dele V. Zasulich.”Sobr. soch., vol. 2. Moscow, 1966.
Stepniak-Kravchinskii, S. M. Soch., vol. 1. Moscow, 1958.

B. S. ITENBERG [9-1 134-5]

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Y, al cartearse con Vera Zasulich de las comunas campesinas rusas, dira que pueden darse saltos del feudalismo al comunismo.
Sperber se ha ocupado de obras subestimadas por el marxismo profesional, como Revelaciones de la historia diplomatica del siglo xvm (1857), Herr Voff (i860) o sus borradores sobre Rusia, en los que se percibe una evolucion favorable al reconocimiento del papel revolucionario de la comuna rural, como en su famosa carta a Vera Zasulich de 1881.
En efecto, en 1881, dos anos antes de su muerte, en carta a Vera Zasulich, Marx afirma que se ha convencido de que la comuna rural << es el punto de apoyo de la regeneracion social en Rusia, mas para que pueda funcionar como tal sera preciso eliminar primeramente las influencias deletereas que la acosan por todas partes y a continuacion asegurarle las condiciones normales para un desarrollo espontaneo >>.
In Russia, Vera Zasulich, for instance, was acquitted in a resounding trial, although she admitted that she had tried to kill Colonel Trepov and, moreover, regretted that she had only managed to hurt him.
A pesar de que el movimiento revolucionario clandestino en Rusia llevaba operando en Rusia desde la decada anterior, su aparicion en la escena internacional se daria de lleno en 1877, cuando una joven de nombre Vera Zasulich se enfrento ante el poderoso y pavoroso coronel Trepoff, Gobernador de San Petersburgo, empunando una pistola.
It was catalyzed in 1878 by Vera Zasulich, who attempted to assassinate the governor of St.
Written during an 1881 exchange of letters with Vera Zasulich, Marx speculated that Russia's village communes might acquire the positive aspects of capitalist production without 'undergoing its frightful vicissitudes' (cited p.
Las dudas de Marx sobre el verdadero caracter de esta comunidad primitiva quedan claramente expresadas en sus titubeos al tratar de responder a las preguntas de los populistas rusos sobre la potencialidad revolucionaria de la comuna rural tradicional rusa, de los que son testimonio los borradores de la carta a Vera Zasulich (Marx y Zasulich 1990 [orig.
In her rendition Lenin appears to be the more effective revolutionary and party leader than the vain Georgii Plekhanov, the acknowledged 'Father of Russian Marxism', or the feckless Menshevik leader, Iulii Martov, or the ageing Bohemian, Vera Zasulich. We follow the peripatetic Lenin as he moves in 1900 from exile in Siberia (where he had been since 1897) to Munich, Geneva, London, Paris, Krakow, Zurich and back to revolutionary Petrograd.
Retraces the course of nineteenth-century populism through the life story of Russia's first female assassin, Vera Zasulich.
Vera Zasulich was particularly silent and withdrawn.
One of the theatre's 2002 highlights was her staging of Jeffries's Vera Wilde, an inventive docu-musical paralleling the sagas of two doomed trailblazers: the famed play-wright Oscar Wilde and the now-obscure 19th-century Russian radical firebrand Vera Zasulich, the subject of Wilde's first play.