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(vāräkro͞os`) [Span.,=true cross], officially

Veracruz Llave

(vāräkro͞os` yä`bā), state (1990 pop. 6,228,239), 27,759 sq mi (71,896 sq km), E central Mexico. The capital is XalapaXalapa
or Xalapa Enriquez
, city (1990 pop. 279,451), capital of Veracruz state, E central Mexico, on the slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental. It is located in a rich agricultural region of fertile valleys.
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. Stretching c.430 mi (690 km) along the Gulf of Mexico and reaching from 30 to 100 mi (48–161 km) inland, Veracruz rises from a tropical coastal plain into the temperate valleys and highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The state shares with neighboring PueblaPuebla
, state (1990 pop. 4,126,101), 13,126 sq mi (33,996 sq km), E central Mexico. The city of Puebla is the capital. The state is almost entirely mountainous, with large valleys between its ranges.
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 the highest peak in Mexico, CitlaltépetlCitlaltépetl
or Orizaba
, peak, 18,700 ft (5,700 m) high, in the Cordillera de Anáhuas, E Mexico, on the Veracruz-Puebla border. It is the highest peak in Mexico and the third highest in North America.
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. Most of central Veracruz is mountainous. The few navigable rivers are the Coatzacoalcos, Papáloapan, Pánuco, and Tamesí. Abundant rainfall and extremely fertile soil permit the cultivation of numerous crops. The state is a leading national producer of coffee, sugarcane, corn, and rice, and produces a wide variety of other crops. Cattle raising is practiced in the semitropical and temperate zones. From the tropical forests come dyewoods and hardwoods, chicle, and rubber, and in the colder regions maguey, various cacti, and coniferous forests are found. The state's principal natural resource and dominant industry is oil. The mountains contain relatively unexploited deposits of gold, silver, iron, and coal. Veracruz ranks high in the production of foods and beverages, as well as chemical manufacturing and metalworking. In ancient times the area was a hub of pre-Columbian civilizations, including the OlmecsOlmec
, term denoting the culture of ancient Mexican natives inhabiting the tropical coastal plain of the contemporary states of Veracruz and Tabasco, between 1300 and 400 B.C.
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, the HuastecsHuastec
, indigenous people of the Pánuco River basin, E Mexico. They speak a Mayan language but are isolated from the rest of the Mayan stock, from whom they may have been separated prior to the arrival of the Spanish.
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, and the Remojadas. Some groups were tributary to the Aztecs by the time Juan de Grijalva explored the coast in 1518. Veracruz became a state in 1824. Major cities, besides the capital, include VeracruzVeracruz,
city (1990 pop. 303,152), Veracruz state, E central Mexico, on the Gulf of Mexico. Rivaling Tampico as the country's main port, it is also the commercial and industrial center of an important oil region, as well as a major tourist resort with beautiful scenery, fine
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, CórdobaCórdoba
, city (1990 pop. 130,695), Veracruz state, E central Mexico. It is the commercial and processing center of a fertile coffee, sugarcane, and tropical fruit region. Sugar milling is the chief industry. The city is also a popular tourist spot.
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, and CoatzacoalcosCoatzacoalcos
, city (1990 pop. 198,817), Veracruz state, E central Mexico, at the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos River. It is a port on the Gulf of Campeche, as well as the northern terminus of rail traffic across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Highway communications are also good.
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city (1990 pop. 303,152), Veracruz state, E central Mexico, on the Gulf of Mexico. Rivaling TampicoTampico
, city (1990 pop. 272,690), Tamaulipas state, E Mexico, on the Pánuco River, a few miles inland from the Gulf of Mexico. Rivaling Veracruz as Mexico's most important seaport, Tampico is used primarily for Mexico's petroleum industry.
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 as the country's main port, it is also the commercial and industrial center of an important oil region, as well as a major tourist resort with beautiful scenery, fine beaches, and excellent accommodations. The city stands on a low, sandy plain surrounded by dunes and swamps, some of which have been reclaimed and are very fertile. In 1519 the Spanish explorer Hernán CortésCortés, Hernán,
or Hernando Cortez
, 1485–1547, Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Mexico. Expedition to Mexico

Cortés went (1504) first to Hispaniola and later (1511) accompanied Diego de Velázquez to Cuba.
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 landed near the site later chosen (1599) for the present city. Veracruz was easy prey for the buccaneers of the 17th and 18th cent. The harbor is guarded by the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa, which was begun in the 17th cent. and was the last stronghold of the Spanish before their expulsion in 1821. Veracruz was blockaded in 1838 by the French. In 1847, U.S. troops under Gen. Winfield Scott landed at Veracruz to begin the major campaign of the Mexican War. The War of the Reform involved foreign intervention in Veracruz; in Dec., 1861, Spanish troops landed there as the first contingent of a joint European force. French and British forces arrived the following month. When it became apparent that France was bent on actual conquest, the Spanish and British withdrew from the joint force. The adventure of the empire of MaximilianMaximilian,
1832–67, emperor of Mexico (1864–67). As the Austrian archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, he was denied a share in the imperial government by his reactionary brother, Emperor Francis Joseph.
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 ensued. In 1914 an incident involving U.S. sailors in Tampico led President Woodrow Wilson to land troops in Veracruz, where they remained for six months. Mexico later responded by severing diplomatic relations.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in eastern Mexico, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, in the state of Veracruz. Population, 199,500 (1969). It is the country’s main port for imports and an important junction for rail, highway, and air communications. It has a plant producing seamless pipes. There is shipbuilding, cotton industry, and food and condiment industry (primarily tobacco). There is oil-drilling north and south of Veracruz.

Veracruz was founded on Apr. 21, 1519, by the Spanish conquistador H. Cortés. A French force occupied the city in 1838 in order to force the Mexican government to satisfy France’s financial claims. During the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, after brutal bombardment, Veracruz was seized by the troops of the USA. It was held by French interventionists from 1862 to 1867. The city was occupied by American troops from April to November 1914. The first Marxist circle in Veracruz was established in 1918. There were large strikes by oil workers in 1916 and 1926-27.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a state of E Mexico, on the Gulf of Mexico: consists of a hot humid coastal strip with lagoons, rising rapidly inland to the central plateau and Sierra Madre Oriental. Capital: Jalapa. Pop.: 630 000 (2005 est.). Area: 72 815 sq. km (28 114 sq. miles)
2. the chief port of Mexico, in Veracruz state on the Gulf of Mexico. Pop.: 410 000 (2000 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
His vehicle was found abandoned in the municipality of Asuncion Ixtaltepec, which is on the border with Veracruz state. Silva Vasquez, a contributor to the daily newspaper El Sol del Istmo, reportedly rejected pressure from criminal organizations to change the focus of an article, said Jan Jarab, a representative for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) in Mexico.
An additional experiment was performed during June--Jul 2014 in an orchard located in central Veracruz State (19[degrees]20'16.49"N, 96[degrees]43'53.52"W) to compare the attraction of Captor + borax with that of CeraTrap and Biolure.
In neighboring Veracruz state, further south on the Gulf of Mexico, security forces Thursday found the dismembered bodies of two missing news photographers and two others, just days after a magazine reporter was killed in the same state.
Officials at the newspaper have criticised police investigations into the crime and called on the Veracruz state Attorney General Amadeo Flores to resign.
Veracruz state is located south east of the country, hosting a large number of petrochemicals and power industries, besides the most important commercial port for exporting oil in the country.
RSF said the world's deadliest places for journalists this year also included Ivory Coast's economic capital Abidjan, where a bloodbath after contested polls claimed around 3,000 lives; Mexico's drug-infested Veracruz state, and the islands of Luzon and Mindanao in the Philippines.
Veracruz state prosecutor's office said seven dead were found piled in a pick-up truck late on Friday.
In a separate incident, Salvador Mikel Rivera, the attorney general of Veracruz state, has confirmed that assailants killed a Colombian businessman working for an multinational oil services company in eastern Mexico on Tuesday.
Martinez is founder of a nonprofit organization in Veracruz state in Mexico called Ecology and Population.
Police did not immediately know what caused the crash, but were investigating whether the driver was speeding or if the brakes failed on the bus as it descended one of the area's many winding roads, said Ranulfo Marquez Hernandez, deputy secretary of civil protection for Veracruz state, where the crash occurred.