Verbal Aspect

Aspect, Verbal


a grammatical category of the verb in many languages which, in general, reflects certain types of the course of an action. The category of aspect in various languages is extremely diverse both in the semantic distinctions made and in the external forms used to express them.

In Russian and other Slavic languages there are two contrasting verbal aspects. The perfective aspect characterizes an action as a complete, indivisible act, as otkryt’ (“to open”). The imperfective aspect provides no indication of the completeness or finality of an action, as otkryvat’ (“to [be] open[ing]”), and describes an action in the very process of realization, as on kak raz otkryval okno (“he was just opening the window”), a repeated action, as ne raz otkryval (“he opened [it] more than once”), or action in general, as ty otkryval okno? (“Were you opening the window?”). Three verbal aspects were distinguished in ancient Greek: the aorist, which in many respects is similar in meaning to the Russian perfective; the present, which is similar to the Russian imperfective; and the perfect, which denotes the state that is a result of a previous action—for example, kektemai (“I have acquired” that is, I possess). In English a distinction is made between the so-called continuous and indefinite aspects. The continuous aspect denotes an action in the process of its realization at a specific moment, as “I am writing,” whereas the indefinite aspect denotes an action with no such specification of time.

Aspectual meanings are usually intertwined with temporal meanings. The formation of the category of aspect, the relationship between the categories of aspect and tense, and even the very existence of aspect are debatable in many languages. Verb formations that are not sufficiently grammatical and which, in particular, do not form regular oppositions within the range of a certain lexical meaning—for example, the so-called iterative aspect in Russian, as edal (“he used to eat”)—are sometimes treated as aspects. In such instances, modern linguistics speaks not of aspects but rather of the so-called modes of action—the iterative, inchoative (Russian zasverkat’ [“to begin to sparkle”]), attenuative (Russian polezhaf [“to lie down for a while”]), semelfactive (kol’-nut’ [“to prick”]), and so on.


References in periodicals archive ?
However, when one talks about communication, the first thing that comes to one's mind is the verbal aspect of it, forgetting that non-verbal communication is equally important.
Among the topics are typology and diachrony of partitive case markers, partitive noun phrases in the Estonian core argument system, dialectical variation in the definite articles and the partitive particle in Basque, the Russian partitive and verbal aspect, and the ancient Greek partitive genitive in typological perspective.
Hence, the verbal aspect as stated by critics in the previous section stops being verbal in the sense attributed to written words, and becomes instead part of the iconical language.
The topics include the acquisition of compositional telicity in Hebrew, the acquisition of negative imperatives in Bulgarian and implications for verbal aspect, a longitudinal investigation of the progressive prototype in second-language English, tense-aspect marking by second-language learners of Korean, and stem alternation and frequency effect in the acquisition of French verbal tenses by Russian adult learners.
(Professor of Classics, Franciscan University of Steubenville, Ohio) is a concise 140- page instructional text that offers students tables of verbal aspect, types of nouns, English personal pronouns, English relative pronouns; the English verb 'to be'; quotations from Greek, Latin, and English masterpieces; and all AP Vergil rhetorical and prosodical terms.
Some examples of possible over-simplification are as follows: nowhere in the text is a complete paradigm of the pual or hophal to be found; there is no discussion of verbal aspect; the semantics of the Hebrew verbal stems are explained in only the most basic sense; diacritical marks are shunned in transliteration; references to historical Semitic grammar are almost entirely absent from the book, even when it might aid a student in understanding specific forms of a word (e.g., she does not discuss the evolution of segholate nouns, only mentioning that they have a different form when a suffix is attached); and there is no discussion of why some vowels "reduce" in certain situations but not others, only that they do.
I am more into the verbal aspect of self-deprecation but I guess the facial aspect is something that a person learns in time and I am definitely learning.
'It's very important to the Irish, especially in the connection with the verbal aspect, the ability to stand one's ground in conversation, and the ability to mildly insult people to see how much pressure can be put on someone before they start to lose their cool.
This, to quote Jakobson, actualization of the imperfective verbal aspect (zdrabniac) may also be taken as a case of the poetics of grammar.
Definiteness is such a case, since it was expressed in Germanic by two categories: case and verbal aspect. Only the deterioration of these categories gave way for developing the definite article.
There is a brief but clear introduction to the important subject of verbal aspect, a key which he frequently employs to unlock difficulties.