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(Hungarian verbunkos; from the German Werbung, recruitment), initially a genre (later also a style) of Hungarian dance music of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It arose in connection with the induction of recruits into the army in Hungary, during which dances with a characteristic musical accompaniment were performed.

The verbunkos was based on the verbunk dance. The music was performed primarily by gypsy ensembles; it merged heterogeneous national elements (Hungarian, South Slavic, and Rumanian) and reflected the influence of German and Italian professional music. The characteristic stylistic features of the verbunkos are distinctive, syncopated rhythms; the “gypsy” or “Hungarian” scale, with an augmented second; the alternation of slow and fast tempos; ornamentation; and improvisation. The golden age of the verbunkos was associated with the Hungarian virtuoso violinists and composers J. Bihari, J. Lavotta, and A. Csermák. The verbunkos greatly influenced the development of Hungarian national music; it was reflected in the works of Liszt, F. Erkel, and Kodály, as well as Haydn, Schubert, Berlioz, Brahms, and others.


References in periodicals archive ?
Other elements appear in the songs, such as verbunkos music in Die drei Zigeuner, and preimpressionistic texture in Im Rhein, im schonen Strome.
Among the topics are Liszt's Verbunkos legacy and the paradoxes of Hungarian music, his transcriptions and the issue of authenticity, rethinking the politics of music in the 1850s and 1860s, celebrating him at his birthplace 1936-2011, Carl Czerny and Liszt's early European tours 1823-25 and 1826, and the film Liszt's Dance with the Devil.
Composer Franz Liszt's most revered compositions were written in verbunkos, the musical idiom of the 19th-century Hungarian style says Loya (U.
Based on the fiery music of Hungarian verbunkos dance, rather than the older folk music of the Magyars that was his usual preference, it alternates between wildly played but structured passages and those with a dawn of the world feel.
Verbunkos and csardas idioms pervade the music of these composers when they sought to evoke nationalist sentiment.
Five of the chapters deal with Bartok's interaction with Hungarian traditions: not only the popular gypsy musics of verbunkos and magyar nota, and the rural peasant traditions that Bartok spent so much of his life studying, but also the Hungarian symphonic and operatic traditions of the nineteenth century.
Verbunkos '(Hungarian) a dance performed to persuade people to enlist in the army' (p.
Since the author cites a number of Hungarian-language sources, one is tempted to ask whether some discussion of the discourse about national music in late nineteenth-century Hungary would have proved insightful--to mention but a single example, Brahms's tendency to evoke the style hongrois only in movements not in sonata form touches on a problem that all Hungarian composers and theorists faced when seeking to create a more "symphonic" style on the basis of the strongly periodical phrase structure characteristic of the verbunkos idiom.
One of the most misunderstood of these projects, as Shay Loya persuasively argues, is Liszt's complex relationship with the Hungarian-Gvpsy musical tradition of verbunkos, to which Liszt was attached "both as a patriot and for more complex musical, aesthetic, and political reasons, which is why he tried out so many compositional possibilities and generic combinations that were well beyond the call of duty and the nationalist narrative" (p.
Locke, Musical Exoticism: Images and Reflections (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Charles Rosen, Music and Sentiment (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010); and Loya Shay, "Beyond 'Gypsy' Stereotypes: Harmony and Structure in the Verbunkos Form," Journal of Musicological Research 27, no.
Two particular sources of inspiration for Bartok act as threads connecting several of the chapters: the verbunkos, or recruiting dance, as the foundation of nineteenth-century Hungarian national style; and art music compositions that drew on that style in various ways that Bartok was likely to know (with particular attention paid to Ferenc Erkel's opera Bank ban [1861]).
Bartok uses verbunkos music, with its tenuous connections to folk music and strong association with Gypsy musicians, not only for its military connotations, but also to mark Judith's intrusion negatively.