veronica

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veronica

(vərŏn`ĭkə) [Lat., probably connected with Greek Berenice], relic preserved in St. Peter's Church, Rome. It is said to be a veil that a woman used to wipe the face of Jesus as he was on the way to Calvary. The cloth retained the print of his face. The woman, often called Veronica, is not listed in official calendars of saints. The relic is commonly called Veronica's veil.

veronica,

in botany: see figwortfigwort,
common name for some members of the Scrophulariaceae, a family comprising chiefly herbs and small shrubs and distributed widely over all continents. The family includes a few climbing types and some parasitic and saprophytic forms.
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Veronica

The pious legend of St. Veronica tells of an act of compassion that this woman performed for Jesus on Good Friday. According to the legend Veronica watched Jesus laboring to carry his cross to the site of the Crucifixion. Moved by his suffering and helpless to do more to aid him, she offered him her handkerchief to wipe the blood and sweat from his face. When he returned it, she found impressed upon the cloth an exact image of his face. This legend became extremely popular in the Middle Ages. It is represented in the sixth of the Stations of the Cross, a popular devotional exercise often performed during Lent.

True Images

The story of Veronica and her handkerchief does not appear in the Bible. Scholars believe that it got its start several centuries after Christ's death, when various stories concerning actual images of Jesus' face, supposedly made during his lifetime, circulated among Christian communities. Naturally such an image would be eagerly sought after by Jesus' followers. As the centuries rolled by many Christians raised their hopes even higher. They dreamt of finding what they called a "true image" of the Savior, not simply a likeness of Jesus created by an artist, but rather an exact replication of his features miraculously impressed upon a material object by the power of God (see also Shroud of Turin). By the Middle Ages a legend arose about just such an image which came into the hands of the woman we call Veronica.

History and Relics

The legend of Veronica developed during the Middle Ages. Several variations of the tale circulated throughout Europe. The version of the story told above can be traced back to fourteenth-century France. This version eventually became the most popular telling of the tale. In another variation of the story Veronica was said to have convinced St. Luke to paint her a portrait of Jesus. The likeness was good, but not exact, and Veronica was not satisfied. Later she acquired a true image when Jesus came to her house for a meal. Before eating he washed his face and dried it upon a towel. The towel retained a perfect impression of his features. Jesus told her to keep the miraculous portrait which could work miracles. Several years after Jesus' death Veronica traveled to Rome at the request of the emperor Tiberius (42 B.C.-37 A.D.). The Emperor touched the image imprinted on Veronica's towel and was instantly cured of a disease.

A cloth said to bear a "true image" of Jesus'face was known in Rome as early as the eighth century. Veneration of this relic of the life of Christ reached its height in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Several other cities and cathedrals also claimed to possess pieces of cloth bearing true images of Christ's face. These cloths were referred to as "veronicas," from the Latin phrase vera icon meaning "true image."

From Berenice to Veronica

How did the woman with the cloth image of Jesus come to be called Veronica? Many writers have supposed that legend dubbed this woman "Veronica" because the name means true image. The actual origins of Veronica and her cloth are somewhat more complicated, however. The legend of Veronica identifies her as a woman who appears in a biblical story concerning Jesus' career as a healer. It claims that she is the hemorrhaging, or bleeding, woman who was cured by touching Jesus' robe (Matthew 9:20-22, Mark 5:25-34, Luke 8:43-48). As early as the fourth century, Christian literature identified this woman as Berenice, a version of the Greek name Pherenice, meaning "bearer of victory." Eventually western Europeans began to refer to her by the Latinized form of this name, Veronica. In the Middle Ages Christian lore began to assert that this same woman also possessed a cloth that bore a true image of Jesus.

Interpreting the Legend

How is it that the bleeding woman became the subject of the Veronica legend? No certain proofs exist, but scholars speculate that the meaning of the name "Veronica" in Latin suggested to many people that she possessed the much-sought-after true image of Christ's face. Also, the selection of the hemorrhaging woman as the one who later comforts Christ with her handkerchief gives the story of this woman's encounters with Jesus a certain symmetry. The Bible tells that the woman we call "Veronica" once reached out to touch Jesus'clothing in the hope of stopping her bleeding. The legend reverses this image. It suggests that on the day of the crucifixion Jesus' reached out to accept the cloth offered to him by Veronica so that he might staunch the sweat and blood of his own injuries.

The legend focuses our attention on the miraculous appearance of a true image of Jesus' face on Veronica's handkerchief. Indeed this legendary handkerchief was considered a priceless relic of the life of Christ during the Middle Ages. This miracle almost overshadows the appearance of another likeness of Christ also depicted in the story. Veronica's act of compassion itself might also be said to be a "true image" of Christ, wrought in the living flesh of one of his followers. Viewed in this way the legend depicts several "true images" of Christ, the first image presented in the person of Jesus himself, the second appearing in Veronica's heart when she was moved by Jesus' suffering, the third in her act of mercy, and the fourth upon the cloth.

Artistic Legacy

For hundreds of years Christians found the legend of Veronica a meaningful and moving tale. Many old churches throughout Europe display paintings or carvings from the legend of Veronica on their walls. Moreover, many famous European artists painted Veronica and her miraculous cloth, including El Greco (1541-1615), Hieronymous Bosch (1450-1516), Rogier Van der Weyden (1399?-1464), and Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664).

Further Reading

Degert, Antoine. "Veronica, St." In Charles G. Herbermann et al., eds. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Appleton, 1913. Available online at: Hackwood, Frederick W. Christ Lore. 1902. Reprint. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1969. Kuryluk, Ewa. Veronica and Her Cloth: History, Symbolism and Structure of a "True" Image. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991. Meagher, P. K. "Veronica." In New Catholic Encyclopedia. Volume 14. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. "Veronica, St." In E. A. Livingstone, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Third edition. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Encyclopedia of Easter, Carnival, and Lent, 1st ed. © Omnigraphics, Inc. 2002
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Veronica

 

a genus of plants of the family Scrophu-lariaceae. They are annual, biennial, and perennial herbs, and sometimes semishrubs. The corolla may be light blue, dark blue, white, or other colors, usually four-lobed, and often spike-shaped; there are two stamens; the fruit is a double-nidus boll. There are approximately 300 species, inhabiting mainly the temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere, often in high mountains. In the USSR, there are over 140 species, found everywhere.

Several veronicas are cultivated as ornamentals. Species of the genus Hebe are often included in the genus Veronica;, these comprise over 100 species of shrubs and low trees that grow mainly in New Zealand (about 90 endemic representatives) and also in Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, and temperate areas of South America. Evergreen species of Hebe with attractive flowers are often cultivated—in the Caucasus and the Crimea in the USSR.

M. E. KIRPICHNIKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

veronica

symbol of faithfulness. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 178]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

veronica

1 RC Church
1. the representation of the face of Christ that, according to legend, was miraculously imprinted upon the headcloth that Saint Veronica offered him on his way to his crucifixion
2. the cloth itself
3. any similar representation of Christ's face

veronica

2
Bullfighting a pass in which the matador slowly swings the cape away from the charging bull

veronica

3
any scrophulariaceous plant of the genus Veronica, esp the speedwells, of temperate and cold regions, having small blue, pink, or white flowers and flattened notched fruits
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Veronica

(information science)
Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives. Veronica offers a keyword search of most gopher menu titles in the entire gopher web. As archie is to FTP archives, Veronica is to Gopherspace. A Veronica search produces a menu of Gopher items, each of which is a direct pointer to a Gopher data source. Because Veronica is accessed through a Gopher Client, it is easy to use, and gives access to all types of data supported by the Gopher protocol.

To try Veronica, select it from the "Other Gophers" menu on Minnesota's gopher server, or point your gopher at:

Name=veronica (search menu items in most of GopherSpace) Type=1 Port=70 Path=1/veronica Host=gopher.scs.unr.edu

gopher://gopher.scs.unr.edu/1/veronica.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)

Veronica

A program that searches the Internet for specific resources by description, not just file name. Using Boolean searches (this AND this, this OR this, etc.), users can search Gopher servers to retrieve a selected group of menus that pertain to their area of interest. See Gopher.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
I gave the gruff but comfortably authoritative cardiologist the business card of Veronica's internist and asked him to call.
Yet when Veronica got sick, my personal databank included nothing on the hospitals near my own home.
The community hospital that treated Veronica is, by reputation, probably the best within 10 miles of us.
The team whisked Veronica upstairs for the angiogram.
Within a few hours after the angiogram, Veronica was in intensive care, and we began to digest the bizarre news.
Veronica spent her last 24 hours in that hospital on a regular floor.
Veronica's internist started the 30-minute appointment with a jaw-dropper: "I want to hear what happened straight from you.
Before the appointment, he had mastered Veronica's hospital record.
I want to hear from you." He proceeded to ask Veronica in detail about everything that had happened.
My own heart skipped when he said to Veronica: "Your echo clearly shows a heart pumping poorly from the myocarditis." It wasn't just the beta-blockers that were making her winded.
As this article goes to print, Veronica is doing well but is facing a nine-month recovery.

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