References in periodicals archive ?
A vertebrate brain. The old story about human brains having extra "layers" and components built on top of an ancient "reptilian" brain just isn't true.
Nothing about what seahorses remember, though, but instead a lot about the hippocampal gyri, a paired, deeply buried structure of rolled-up cortex in the vertebrate brain. Each hippocampus (it actually looks not so much like a seahorse, more like a tapering sausage) acts together with adjacent cortical areas to drive the consolidation of experiences into memory traces.
But an examination of a recently found marine species that has been around for hundreds of millions of years challenges that view, and suggests vertebrate brain evolution began with two parts, not three.
How the Vertebrate Brain Regulates Behavior: Direct From the Lab
DRESDEN, Germany, October 20, 2016--German researchers have shown how a diseased vertebrate brain can naturally react to Alzheimer's pathology by forming more neurons.
In 2005, he and colleagues found a center of the brain in migratory birds that apparently enables sensing of magnetic fields through "night vision." That year he also led a revision of the understanding of bird brain organization and vertebrate brain evolution.
Space-time labeling is required for every sensory modality, which explains why the primitive architecture of the primordial vertebrate brain has been retained in the limbic system of mammals.
Together with similar studies in the lamprey [2] and mouse [4,6], these results confirm the ancient, conserved scaffold that appears in the vertebrate brain.
It may be the first time vertebrate brain activity has ever been revealed in such detail.
Glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Our neurons' synapses have the ability to reorganize their structure, function, and connections, a characteristic known as "synaptic plasticity." The connections among neurons are fundamental to the development, maintenance, and remodeling of complex neural circuits.
"Because the honey bee brain is smaller and more accessible than any vertebrate brain, we hope to eventually be able to produce an accurate and complete model that we can test within a flying robot," Marshall added.