vertebrate

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vertebrate,

any animal having a backbone or spinal columnspinal column,
bony column forming the main structural support of the skeleton of humans and other vertebrates, also known as the vertebral column or backbone. It consists of segments known as vertebrae linked by intervertebral disks and held together by ligaments.
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. Verbrates can be traced back to the Silurian period. In the adults of nearly all forms the backbone consists of a series of vertebrae. All vertebrates belong to the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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. There are five classes of vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. General characteristics of vertebrate animals include their comparatively large size, the high degree of specialization of parts they exhibit, their bilaterally symmetrical structure, and their wide distribution over the earth. In addition to an internal skeleton of bone and cartilage or of cartilage alone, vertebrates have a spinal cord, a brain enclosed in a cranium, a closed circulatory system, and a heart divided into two, three, or four chambers. Most have two pairs of appendages that are variously modified as fins, limbs, or wings in the different classes. All animals without backbones are called invertebratesinvertebrate
, any animal lacking a backbone. The invertebrates include the tunicates and lancelets of phylum Chordata, as well as all animal phyla other than Chordata. The major invertebrate phyla include: the sponges (Porifera), coelenterates (Cnidaria), echinoderms
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; these do not form a homogeneous group as do vertebrates.
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vertebrate

1. any chordate animal of the subphylum Vertebrata, characterized by a bony or cartilaginous skeleton and a well-developed brain: the group contains fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
2. of, relating to, or belonging to the subphylum Vertebrata
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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In vertebrates, 27 key spectral tuning sites have been identified in the protein for rhodopsin.
After graduating and getting his bachelor and master's degrees from Mansoura University, Sallam started his journey in studying vertebrate palaeontology at Oxford University as the first Oxford-trained vertebrate palaeontologist in the Middle East.
Even as scientists have warned that (http://www.ibtimes.com/sixth-mass-extinction-coming-over-30-all-vertebrate-species-have-declining-2563440) a sixth mass extinction may be coming - with over 30 percent of all vertebrate species declining in numbers over the past 25 years - researchers who carried out a global analysis of thousands of species have found that body size of vertebrate species is an important factor in determining how much risk they face in terms of going extinct.
Nyffeler had combed the internet for reports of regal jumping spiders eating vertebrates. He found eight reports in total, spread out across seven counties in Florida.
Ahlberg and colleagues suspect the key jaw elements of bony fish (and all land vertebrates) evolved from those bony blades of placoderms.
The scientists looked at historic rates of extinction for vertebrates by assessing fossil records.
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Fellow palaeontologist Matt Friedman added: "It will take time to fully digest the implications of such a remarkable fossil, but it is clear that a major reframing of our understanding of early jawed vertebrate evolution is now in full swing." The fish they found would have been eight-inches long and armour plated.
Key words: small vertebrates, central Georgia Piedmont habitat, drift fence survey
These categories overlap when the same molecule provides recognition and effector functions (e.g., some functions of immunoglobulin in vertebrates), but these functions are often separate and specialized.