Vesuvius


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Vesuvius

(vəso͞o`vēəs), Ital. Vesuvio, active volcano, S Italy, on the eastern shore of the Bay of Naples, SE of Naples. The only other active volcano on the European mainland is the Campi Flegrei (se Phlegraean FieldsPhlegraean Fields
, Ital. Campi Flegrei, fertile volcanic region, Campania, S Italy, along the Tyrrhenian Sea between Pozzuoli and Naples. It is named for ancient Phlegra, in Macedonia, where in mythology the battle between the giants and the gods took place.
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) caldera on the Gulf of Pozzuoli to the east. The height of Vesuvius's main cone changes with each eruption, varying within a few hundred feet of the 4,000-ft (1,219-m) level; in 1969 the height was 4,190 ft (1,277 m). The second summit, Monte Somma (3,770 ft/1,149 m) is a ridge that half encircles the cone and is separated from it by a valley (c.3 mi/5 km long). The sides of Vesuvius are deeply scarred by lava flow, but its lower slopes are extremely fertile, dotted with villages, and covered with vineyards which produce the famous Lachryma Christi wine. The base of the mountain (circumference c.45 mi/70 km) is encircled by a railroad, and a chairlift reaches almost to the rim of the crater (diameter c.2,300 ft/700 m). On the western slope, at 1,995 ft (608 m), there is a seismological observatory (built 1840–45). The outline of Vesuvius forms part of the backdrop of Naples; it is often surmounted by a faint plume of smoke.

The earliest recorded eruption (A.D. 79) was described by Pliny the Younger in two letters to Tacitus; the eruption buried PompeiiPompeii
, ancient city of S Italy, a port near Naples and at the foot of Mt. Vesuvius. Possibly an old Oscan settlement, it was a Samnite city for centuries before it passed under Roman rule at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (1st cent. B.C.).
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, HerculaneumHerculaneum
, ancient city of S Italy, on the gulf of Naples at the foot of Mt. Vesuvius. Damaged by an earthquake in A.D. 63, it was completely buried, along with Pompeii, by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in A.D. 79.
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, and Stabiae under cinders, ashes, and mud. Pliny the ElderPliny the Elder
(Caius Plinius Secundus) , c.A.D. 23–A.D. 79, Roman naturalist, b. Cisalpine Gaul. He was a friend and fellow soldier of Vespasian, and he dedicated his great work to Titus.
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 was killed by the eruption, which he had come to investigate. Frequent eruptions have been recorded since Pompeii was destroyed, notably in 512, in 1631, six times in the 18th cent., eight times in the 19th cent. (notably in 1872), and in 1906, 1929, and 1944. The eruptions vary greatly in severity, but the geological record shows that Vevusius experiences a truly devastating eruption every 2,000–3,000 years.

Vesuvius

volcano in Italy which erupted in A.D. 79, burying Pompeii and Herculaneum. [Rom. Hist.: NCE, 2187]

Vesuvius

a volcano in SW Italy, on the Bay of Naples: first recorded eruption in 79 ad, which destroyed Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae; numerous eruptions since then. Average height: 1220 m (4003 ft.)
References in periodicals archive ?
People had just a few hours warning from Vesuvius before a wall of 400C heat killed them instantly.
Vesuvius is in molten metal flow engineering principally serving the steel and foundry industries.
"If this magma is of a more acid composition, a type similar to the one which caused the Pompei eruption, yo can can expect an extremely explosive, dangerous eruption," he said.In such an event, 700,000 people would be potentially at threat, he said."On the other hand, if the magma is of mainly basalt composition, as in the last eruption in 1944, it would be of a flow type, with streams of lava, and that would be far less destructive."Geological signatures show that from about 20,000 years ago to the Pompeii eruption in AD79, Vesuvius had a treaclier magma associated with violent eruptions preceded by billowing clouds of suffocating dust and toxic gas, according to the paper.
We were then taken by coach to Pompeii, buried under ash and rock when Vesuvius erupted in 79AD.
Just a few miles outside the city lies the ancient site of Pompeii, destroyed by the volcano Vesuvius's eruption in 79 AD.
Mount Vesuvius hasn't had a major eruption since 1631, but it's still very active.
Sheridan and his colleagues at the Vesuvius Observatory in Naples and the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federieo II speculated that Naples, 15 kilometers from Mount Vesuvius, might have been in the path of that blast.
Some familiarity with the first two books in the series, Thieves of Ostia and Secrets of Vesuvius, may make this more enjoyable.
To put this new book into perspective, it is interesting to summarize the history of the main works dealing with Vesuvius. The first books published by the Italian mineralogists of the 19th century and before (in particular Giuseppe Gioeni, Scipione Breislak, Teodoro Monticelli, Nicola Covelli, Arcangelo Scacchi, and Giuseppe Cesaro) and several foreign authors like William Thomson, Gerardus vom Rath, and Alfred Lacroix, were followed in 1910 by a thorough review: Mineralogia Vesuviana by Ferruccio Zambonini.
In less than 24 hours, the entire city of Pompeii, and at least 5,000 of its citizens, were buried under 75 feet of volcanic debris--victims of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. This 90-minute special combines cutting-edge historical analysis with human drama and lavish special effects to capture the devastation wrought by the eruption of Mt.
In 1767 the great collector and vulcanologist Sir William Hamilton designed an 'apparatus' to depict an eruption of Vesuvius, This remarkable combination of moving pictures with light and sound effects was perhaps the closest the eighteenth century came to the cinema.