veto

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veto

[Lat.,=I forbid], power of one functionary (e.g., the president) of a government, or of one member of a group or coalition, to block the operation of laws or agreements passed or entered into by the other functionaries or members.

In the U.S. government, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to veto any bill passed by Congress. The president's veto power is limited; it may not be used to oppose constitutional amendments, and it may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress. In practice, the veto is used rarely by the president (although Franklin D. RooseveltRoosevelt, Franklin Delano
, 1882–1945, 32d President of the United States (1933–45), b. Hyde Park, N.Y. Early Life

Through both his father, James Roosevelt, and his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt, he came of old, wealthy families.
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 vetoed over 600 bills), and a bill once vetoed is rarely reapproved in the same form by Congress. The pocket veto is based on the constitutional provision that a bill fails to go into operation if it is unsigned by the president and Congress goes out of session within ten days of its passage; the president may effectively veto such a bill by ignoring it. The British crown's technical veto power over acts of Parliament has not been exercised since 1707.

American states have generally given their governors veto power similar to that of the president. In addition, more than 40 states have legislated a line-item veto, which, in varying terms, allows the governor to veto particular provisions of taxing and spending bills. In 1996, Congress passed a law that gave the president a limited ability to kill items in similar federal bills, but it was ruled unconstitutional in 1998.

The second type of veto, by one member of a coalition, has been seen frequently as exercised by one or another member of the United NationsUnited Nations
(UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. It replaced the League of Nations. In 1945, when the UN was founded, there were 51 members; 193 nations are now members of the organization (see table entitled United Nations Members).
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 Security Council; its use within the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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 is under debate.

Veto

 

in ancient Rome a right exercised by a Roman magistrate (right of intercession) with respect to the decisions and actions of another magistrate. The right of veto of the people’s tribunes was particularly important. In Poland in the 17th century the so-called liberum veto was in effect; complete unanimity was required in the decisions of the sejm.

In bourgeois states the head of state has the right to refuse to put into force a draft law adopted by the legislative organ. The right of veto came into being in monarchical states during the period when a balance of power developed between the executive organ, represented by the monarch, and parliament. Monarchs as a rule had the absolute right of veto, and the imposition of the veto meant that the draft law was entirely discarded and would not be subjected to further examination in parliament. The establishment of parliamentarism in bourgeois countries, the decline in the prestige of monarchist tradition, and the concentration of all power in the hands of the governments brought to an end the practice of the use of the veto by the monarch (in England, for example, a veto was imposed for the last time in 1707) although it is theoretically still retained.

In most of the bourgeois republics of today the right of veto is vested in the head of state—the president. As a rule, it is a deferring veto: in refusing to enforce the draft law (which means, in most cases, the refusal to sign it), the president must refer it back to parliament for further examination. If the draft law is once again adopted by parliament in accordance with the conditions laid down in the constitution, it becomes law without the sanction of the head of state. In a number of countries, including the United States, where the head of state may exercise the right of veto only within a certain time limit, constitutional practice has given rise to the so-called pocket veto: a draft law not signed by the president within a given time limit is considered to have lapsed, if at the expiry of the time limit the houses of parliament are not in session. In the United States from 1945 to 1966 inclusive, the right of veto was used in the case of 192 bills, and Congress was able to overrule the president (that is, pass the bill a second time) in 15 cases in all. Over the same period of time, the pocket veto was used in 207 cases.

In socialist countries, where the right to pass laws is vested in the supreme representative organ (for example, the Supreme Soviet in the USSR), the constitution does not accord the right of veto to the head of state.

In international law, the nonunanimity of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council is sometimes referred to as recourse to a veto.

B. S. KRYLOV

veto

US Government a document containing the reasons why a chief executive has vetoed a measure
References in periodicals archive ?
For this, he became the winner of the Veto Power Game of Chance and has earned himself the power to Save and Replace any Housemate at the Nomination Task on Monday.
Hopefully, the President and his economic managers will further scrutinize the final version of the budget bill as passed by Congress and exercise his veto power to excise the line items that clearly look and smell like pork," Lacson said.
'Under the Constitution, the President may exercise line-item veto power and still approve the GAA [General Appropriations Act].
Abbott has not offered any hints about how willing he is to stretch his veto power in the current budget process, and his office declined to comment for this story.
"Tunisia's endorsement of this initiative is motivated by its concern to preserve Human rights," Baccouche said at high-level ministerial meeting on the initiative to restrain veto power in situations of mass atrocities.
The UFC supports the expansion in the non-permanent category of the 15 member Security Council, which could enable all member states to sit on the powerful body by rotation from two to six years stint, and that Non-Permanent members would not have veto powers. Russia's UN Ambassador, Vitaly Churkin said that more permanent members will not make UNSC more effective.
The French proposal gained traction after Russia and China used their veto power last year to block a resolution asking the International Criminal Court to investigate crimes committed in Syria.
Just because a governor rightly decides to be judicious in exercising her veto power doesn't mean an occasional veto isn't necessary.
The revised draft of the Indian Financial Code released by the ministry last month had suggested doing away with the veto power and proposed that the seven- member MPC take decisions by a majority vote.
According to sources cited by Reuters and Bloomberg, the two primary proposed maneuvers include taking away America's veto power at the institution, essentially allowing the IMF to run wild at the whims of foreign governments and dictator ships, and asking the Obama administration to "temporarily" give up the U.S.
(Fifteen members of the Security Council do vote, but only those of the 5 permanent members have veto power).
Council reforms would include: membership, veto power, regional representation, the council's expansion and its relation to the UN General Assembly.