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via

[′vē·ə or ′vī·ə]
(electronics)
A pathway that is etched to allow electrical contact between different layers of a semiconductor device.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

via

(1) By means of, by way of. From Latin for "way" or "path."

(2) (Virtual Interface Architecture) See VI.

(3) (Vertical Interconnect Access) In a printed circuit board, a conducting pathway between two or more substrates (layers). The via is created by drilling through the board at the appropriate place where two or more layers will interconnect and allowing copper to run through the hole. The copper may coat only the sides of the hole or fill the entire hole. See printed circuit board.

(4) (Vertical Interconnect Access) In a chip, a conducting pathway between two or more layers. In a 3D chip, two or more stacked dice are connected via "through-silicon vias" (TSVs) which are pathways that pass completely through the die.


Creating Vias
In the antifuse programmable chip technology, a circuit is closed by turning non-conductive silicon into a conductive via. See antifuse.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Four factors decide where, between these two extremes, your vias will end up: the signal layer transitions between the via, the bandwidth of the signals traveling in the channel, the board stackup features and the via design features.
Adding more return vias without placing them symmetrically creates an unbalanced return path.
It is easy to visually differentiate the performance of unfilled vias from the other two test conditions.
A printed circuit board via is a structure that connects two transmission lines on different layers of a multilayered printed circuit board.
This case shows an expected relationship between trace current and temperature as a function of trace width, but it is not apparent how that relationship (with a via) compares to the relationship without a via.
With BGA pads, there really are only two options: Don't put the via in the pad, or have the via plugged and plated over with metal.
The voids, though larger with the unfilled (control) and partial filled (blue) vias (Figure 1), stay close to the PWB.
At 10 GHz, the currents are effectively terminated by the vias. At 15 GHz, the upper half of the grounding pad behaves like an open circuit shunt stub.