peasants had clear notions of what they wanted, understood current situations at national and international levels, and strived to achieve, not always successfully, their goals.
By the summer of 1917, however, peasants' own views of themselves as citizens and actors had begun to diverge from the expectations of political elites and educated society, who possessed "long-held notions of how peasants were supposed to act," notions to which the peasants of Viatka
refused to conform (p.
He concludes that peasants in Viatka
who petitioned Soviet authorities came to identify with the state.
The ideas raised in this first essay can be traced through the collection: the destructiveness of Don Juan foreshadows the character of Pechorin; the Verfremdungse effekt in the work of Gogol' takes up the sense of uncertainty and alienation felt by the superfluous men; the overwhelming failure of interpersonal relationships in Chekhov's stories echoes their inability to reach out to those around them, and as Seeley points out, whilst in Viatka
Herzen gives a convincing performance as a superfluous man in (in)action.
In addition to re-examining well known materials located at the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA) and other established repositories of Old Belief writings, he effectively uses provincial diocesan archives -- notably those of Vologda, Riazan, Kholmogory, Novgorod, and Viatka
Households Belev 1718 4110 841 Borovsk 1719 2399 335 Maloiaroslavets 1715 976 156 Riazan' 1718 1589 220 Toropets 1710 3674 839 Tula 1715 5309 916 Tula 1720 3022 502 Uglich 1717 5089 877 Ustiuzhna 1713 2277 417 Viatka
1710 4368 724 Viatka
1717 2387 394 Zaraisk 1715 2980 498 TOTALS 38180 6719 SOURCE: Population inventories (see fn.
51) Quite similarly, in Viatka
, according to Aaron Retish, the Soviet administration demonstrated concern for peasants' needs and distributed agricultural tools.
Ivan was a horse dealer, buying horses in Viatka
and selling them around Baki.
Gabdulla Bubi, director of Izh-Bubi Madrasa in Viatka
Province, had introduced a range of secular subjects into the curriculum by 1900, including Turkish grammar, mathematics, general history, and geography.
Tsar of Kazan and Astrakhan, Sovereign and Grand Prince of Pskov, Smolensk, Tver', Iugora, Perm', Viatka
, Bolgar, and others, Sovereign and Grand Prince of the Novgorod lower lands, of Chernigov, of Riazan', of Polotsk, of Rostov, of Obdora, of Kondinsk, Commander (povelitel') of all the Siberian lands and northern countries, and Sovereign and Possessor (obladitel') of many other realms.
Tracking the peasants of Viatka
province through the revolution and Civil War, Retish registers the success of the provincial Soviet government "in drawing support from key segments of the village population, who agreed to be the administrative links between peasants and power.
Alexander Herzen made the inimitable observation that "the power of the governor increases directly in proportion to distance from Petersburg, but geometrically in such places where there is no nobility, such as Perm', Viatka
, and Siberia.