Vibration Cutting

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Vibration Cutting


a means of working metal by cutting in which the tool is vibrated relative to the workpiece, in addition to its basic movement. Vibration cutting is used to break up shavings, in working difficult materials (stainless and heat-resistant steels), and in cutting materials by vibrating saws and shears.

Low-frequency vibrators with mechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic drive (the frequency of the induced vibrations does not exceed 50 hertz [Hz]) are used for crushing shavings.

When working conditions are constant and the cutting stress is low, the natural oscillations resulting from the cutting process itself can also be used as the source of the vibration. For vibration cutting of hard-to-work materials, magnetostrictive, magnetomechanical, piezoelectric, electrodynamic, electric-hydraulic, and hydraulic vibrators, in which the frequency of the induced vibrations is greater than 100 Hz, are used. A column of fluid serves as the energy-transmitting link between the saddle and the vibrator. This increases the life of a high-frequency vibrator, since it eliminates bearings, couplings, and other parts that normally wear out rapidly. Such vibrating saddles are not very large, but they produce considerable useful force—that is, they have high specific power. Depending on the gearing and the particular characteristics of the cutting process, high-frequency vibrators may be one-component (vibrations in one direction), two-component (vibrations in a plane), or three-component (spatial vibrations).

In vibration cutting with crushing of shavings, the vibrations are applied axially (in the direction of the feed); efficient and reliable operation is obtained in processing a surface to the fifth or sixth grades of finish with the given accuracy and tool hardness. The basic characteristics of vibration cutting with axial vibrations are a great change in the depth of cut over one tool vibration cycle and a great change in the cutting angle for a small increase in cutting speed.

In vibration cutting, vibrations for the purpose of machin-ability may be applied tangentially in accordance with the circumferential component of the cutting speed. The use of tangential vibrations is accompanied by a periodic increase in the circumferential speed with a variable effect on the layer being cut at virtually constant sections of cutting, feed, and cutting depth.

When used in work with vibrating saws and shears, vibration cutting produces good edge quality and a marked in-crease in productivity.

Vibration cutting does not use gearing systems providing radial vibrations, since they lead to a sharp deterioration in the grade of surface finish.

The basic technological conditions for the effective use of vibration cutting include the correct choice of vibration parameters (amplitude and frequency).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
If A[omega] > [v.sub.c] tool will separate from the workpiece and the condition for the vibration cutting is satisfied, otherwise it stays a conventional cutting process.
Effect of machining parameters in ultrasonic vibration cutting. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 48(9), 965-974.
Effect of machining parameters in ultrasonic vibration cutting, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 48(9): 965-974.
Vibration cutting was one of the new methods for this purpose [1].
An approach based on tool mode control for surface roughness reduction in high-frequency vibration cutting, Journal of Sound and Vibration 329: 4866-4879.
New ideas for improving performance of vibration cutting processes, carried out by the author of this paper in the field of vibration turning [1], suggested and encouraged to perform a more thorough investigation of associated dynamic phenomena.
Contributions to the study of metallic materials ultrasound vibration cutting, PhD Thesis, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest
Research results confirm the importance of the tool mode control in enhancing the effectiveness of vibration cutting tools from the viewpoint of structural dynamics.
Kumabe J.,(1979) Fundamentals and Application of Vibration Cutting, Jikkyo Publishing Co., Japan.
In order to improve cutting efficiency, cobalt-rich crusts vibration cutting method is proposed.
Characteristics of elliptical vibration cutting in micro-V grooving with variations in the elliptical cutting locus and excitation frequency.-J.