Victor Emmanuel

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Related to Victor Emmanuel: Cavour, Mussolini
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Victor Emmanuel


(Vittorio Emmanuele), kings of the Savoy dynasty in Sardinia (Piedmont) and in the United Kingdom of Italy.

Victor Emmanuel I. Born July 24, 1759; died Jan. 10, 1824. King of Sardinia from 1802 to 1821. From 1793 to 1796 he commanded the Sardinian Army in the war against revolutionary France. After the French occupation, the Kingdom of Piedmont was located mainly on the island of Sardinia. After the fall of Napoleon I, Victor Emmanuel I returned to Turin in 1814, and by the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1814-15 he regained his previous domains, to which the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) added the territory of the liquidated Genoese Republic. In his domains (except Genoa) he re-stored the laws effective before 1798. At the beginning of the bourgeois revolution in Piedmont (March 1821), Victor Emmanuel I, not desiring to make constitutional concessions, abdicated the throne in favor of his brother Karl Felix.


Victor Emmanuel II. Born Mar. 14, 1820; died Jan. 1, 1878. King of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861 and first king of united Italy from 1861 to 1878. In the period of struggle for national liberation and the unification of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II supported the plans of the liberals (under Cavour’s leadership), aiming at the unification of Italy “from above” around the Sardinian monarchy by means of dynastic arrangements with the Italian sovereigns and foreign powers, first with France. Conducting a bitter struggle with the republican-democratic camp of the national liberation movement, he attempted to attract individual representatives of that camp, especially G. Garibaldi, to the side of the monarchy to use them for his own purposes.

Thus, in the course of the Austro-Italo-French War of 1859, Victor Emmanuel II entrusted Garibaldi with the command of a corps of volunteers. During the march of The Thousand (1860), the king occupied a dual position. Not openly opposing Garibaldi’s expedition, he nevertheless tried to limit its scope and independence; but when in the course of the Revolution of 1859-60 The Thousand liberated southern Italy, the king dispatched a Piedmontese army to the south in order to suppress the revolution and keep Garibaldi from power. The Piedmont bourgeois-monarchic bloc took advantage of the successes of the popular uprisings in order to annex the states of central and southern Italy to the Kingdom of Sardinia after those states were freed from the power of local sovereigns.

In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of Italy. He headed the Italian Army during the Austro-Italian War of 1866. Fearing the discontent of France, which had stationed a garrison in Rome, Victor Emmanuel II obstructed Garibaldi’s attempts to liberate Rome from papal power. However, after the fall of the French Empire in 1870, he sent troops to Rome and occupied the city simultaneously with Garibaldi’s forces. The secular power of the papacy was liquidated. After 1870, in the sphere of foreign policy, the king took the first steps toward a rapprochement with Austria and Germany through an exchange of visits with the courts of Vienna and Berlin in 1873-75.


Victor Emmanuel III. Born Nov. 11, 1869; died Dec. 28, 1947. He was the last king of Italy (1900-46). He supported the fascist dictatorship (established in Italy with his assistance in 1922) until its collapse in 1943, when, under the threat of mass disturbances in the country, he removed Mussolini from power (the so-called palace coup of July 25, 1943). Striving to preserve the monarchy, Victor Emmanuel III transferred royal functions to his son Umberto, making him vicegerent on June 5, 1944; on May 9, 1946, he abdicated the throne and later left the country. On June 18 of that year Italy was declared a republic by referendum.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The remains of Victor Emmanuel III, who reigned as Italy's king through two world wars and died in exile in 1947, were flown back from Egypt on Sunday for reburial at a family mausoleum near Turin.
Rome: The body of Italy's controversial king Victor Emmanuel III returned to Italy on Sunday, amid a row over where the monarch who abetted dictator Benito Mussolini should be buried.
Although Victor Emmanuel II was persuaded to accept the terms of the armistice, Cavour presented angry and full of bitterness, his resignation and the task of forming a new government has been entrusted by the king La Marmora (Procacci, 1975: 343).
In 1776, British forces evacuated Boston during the Revolutionary War.In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the first king of a united Italy.
Italian-Egyptian relations were so strong and deemed so important that when the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, abdicated the throne in 1946 after Italy's defeat in World War II, Egyptian King Farouk invited him to live in Alexandria.
Around 60 members of the Ikhwan Kazeboon campaign were projecting a data show introducing civil disobedience in Victor Emmanuel Square when they were attacked with teargas by CSF, said Ahmed Wahba, a political activist.
Earlier this spring, Italians around the world marked the 150th anniversary of unification that had culminated, symbolically, on March 17, 1861, with the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel II (who barely spoke Italian) as king.
It was Garibaldi who made Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont the ruler of a united Italy, while the king stood ever ready to disavow him.
About this time, he seems to have become convinced that the best chance for Italian unification would be under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel, the King of Piedmont-Sardinia.
Victor Emmanuel III was the last king of Italy, reigning between 1900 and 1946.
July 25 At the Rome palace of King Victor Emmanuel III, Italy's fascist dictator Benito Mussolini is forced to resign.