Livonia

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Related to Vidzeme: Kurzeme, Latgale, Zemgale

Livonia

, region and former Russian province
Livonia (lĭvōˈnēə), region and former Russian province, comprising present Estonia and parts of Latvia (Vidzeme and Latgale). It borders on the Baltic Sea and its arms, the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland, in the west and the north and extends E to Lake Peipus (Chudskoye) and the Narva. Livonia, also known as Livland, was named after the Livs, a Finno-Ugric tribe that inhabited the coast when, in the 13th cent., the Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquered the entire region. The knights formed a strong state and threatened Lithuania and Novgorod in the 13th and 14th cent. The chief cities—notably Riga, Tartu, and Tallinn—were Germanic in culture and were members of the Hanseatic League. After the dissolution (1561) of the Livonian Order, Livonia was contested by Poland, Russia, and Sweden. Courland, in the southwest, became a duchy under Polish suzerainty, and Latgale, in the southeast, became part of Poland. Vidzeme, in the center, passed first to Poland, then (1629) to Sweden, which also held the northern part (Estonia). The Swedish share was conquered (1710) in the Northern War by Peter I of Russia, who kept it at the Peace of Nystad (1721). Latgale passed to Russia in 1772. In 1783, Livonia was constituted a Russian province, and in 1918 it was divided between Estonia and Latvia.

Livonia

, city, United States
Livonia (lĭvōnˈyə), city (1990 pop. 100,850), Wayne co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit; founded 1835, inc. 1950. Among its manufactures are transportation equipment, plastic and steel products, textiles, and food products. The city is the seat of Madonna College. The Wolverine Harness Raceway is there.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Livonia

 

originally the name of the region inhabited by the Livs in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, lying along the lower reaches of the Daugava and Gauja rivers. From the second quarter of the 13th century to 1561, Livonia was the name given to the entire territory of Latvia and Estonia, which was controlled by the German Knights.

Livonia was a confederation of five feudal states: the Livonian Order, the Archbishopric of Riga, and the Bishoprics of Courland, Dorpat (Tartu), and Ösel. It was nominally ruled by the pope and the German emperor. After the creation of the Duchy of Courland in 1561, the name Livonia was applied to northern Latvia and southern Estonia—territories that in the course of the Livonian War came under the control of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the Truce of Altmark in 1629, these territories passed to Sweden. With this restricted meaning, the name “Livonia” was replaced by “Livland” in the 17th century.


Livonia

 

a city in the northern part of the USA, in Michigan. An industrial suburb of Detroit, it had a population of 110,000 in 1970. The chief industry is machine building, including motor vehicles.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Livonia

1. a former Russian province on the Baltic, north of Lithuania: became Russian in 1721; divided between Estonia and Latvia in 1918
2. a city in SE Michigan, west of Detroit. Pop.: 99 487 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Another aim is to correlate local pollen assemblage zones (LPAZ) to those of the regional North Vidzeme palynostratigraphy, as well as to estimate the earliest detectable human impact in the pollen and plant macroremain data.
Secondly, the exceptional features of Salaca Livonian which resemble Courland Livonian, especially its western dialect, can be remnants of the former Livonian variety of southern Vidzeme. The specific traits and some similarities with Mulgi, Leivu and other southernmost South Estonian dialects could be the remnants of the archaic Metsepole Livonian, which differed both from the southern Vidzeme dialects of Livonian and Courland Livonian.
For me The Baltic Times serves as a teaching tool: we analyse its content with our media and journalism students at Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences when studying the Latvian and Baltic media environment.
Proportional division of manor complexes Manor komplexes in regions of Latvia Kurzeme 24% Vidzeme 33% Zemgale 25% Latgale 18% Note: Table made from pie chart.
Caption: Gatis Krumins, rector of Latvia's Vidzeme university of Applied Sciences.
The mayor of Rezekne, from Harmony Centre, explained that his vote for Russian in 2012 was "my protest" as he wanted to "show that national minorities were living in a fair society" In the past, resentment has focussed on the national government's favouring Vidzeme and Riga itself over Latgale in the distribution of EU funds.
Bei Lehnwortern mit zahlreichen phonetischen Varianten oder einem ausgedehnten Verbreitungsgebiet uber die Grenzen von Vidzeme hinaus hat E.
The case has been handed to the Riga Vidzeme District Court.
26-28, Latvian National Symphony Orchestra Summer Festival, Vidzeme Concert Hall, Cesis
In hochsten Tonen lobt er beispielsweise Untersuchungen der lettischen Ethnografin Aina Alsupe wie "Audeji Vidzeme 19.
RIGA, Aug 15 (LETA) - Riga Vidzeme District Court has ruled in favor of construction company ReRe Buve 1 and banned the state real estate management company Valsts Nekustamie Ipasumi (VNI) from signing any new contracts for other construction companies and third parties for completion of the reconstruction of New Riga Theater building on Lacplesa Street in Riga, LETA learned at the court.