Livonia(redirected from Vidzeme)
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Livonia, region and former Russian province
Livonia, city, United States
originally the name of the region inhabited by the Livs in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, lying along the lower reaches of the Daugava and Gauja rivers. From the second quarter of the 13th century to 1561, Livonia was the name given to the entire territory of Latvia and Estonia, which was controlled by the German Knights.
Livonia was a confederation of five feudal states: the Livonian Order, the Archbishopric of Riga, and the Bishoprics of Courland, Dorpat (Tartu), and Ösel. It was nominally ruled by the pope and the German emperor. After the creation of the Duchy of Courland in 1561, the name Livonia was applied to northern Latvia and southern Estonia—territories that in the course of the Livonian War came under the control of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the Truce of Altmark in 1629, these territories passed to Sweden. With this restricted meaning, the name “Livonia” was replaced by “Livland” in the 17th century.
a city in the northern part of the USA, in Michigan. An industrial suburb of Detroit, it had a population of 110,000 in 1970. The chief industry is machine building, including motor vehicles.