One of Marr's key contributions in State, war, and revolution is to disaggregate three historical actors which have traditionally been conflated with each other: the DRV state, the Viet Minh
movement, and the ICP.
sources are limited to contemporary documents captured by the French, prisoner of war interrogations, and the writings of Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap.
Just like their Catholic brothers and sisters in the Red River Delta, many of them broke with the Viet Minh
during the second half of the conflict.
The French Union Force fortified the region in November 1953 in a massive airborne operation (Operation Castor) to block Viet Minh
They believed the "air-land-base" concept (fortified airheads deep in enemy territory), would enable them to disrupt enemy movements, logistics, and lines of communication, forcing the Viet Minh
to attack on battlefields favorable to the French.
Accepting their offer would have meant committing the Hmong to a bloody struggle against Viet Minh
incursions from the east" (Lee 2015: 280).
On one hand, it seemed possible that fighting could be averted once France and the Viet Minh
signed an agreement on March 6, 1946.
Built over two decades (often with mere shovels and bare hands), beginning in the 1940s, the tunnels provided shelter and a base of operations for the Viet Minh
, later the Viet Cong, "peasants in black pajamas," as they were contemptuously dismissed by American soldiers, who wore not boots but so-called Ho Chi Minh sandals, flip-flops with tire cut-out soles, and fought against Japanese, then French and finally American invaders, invaders who brought with them a vastly superior military arsenal to the battlefield, but were still defeated.
Rare is the story told of a Vietnamese soldier who in 1946 served with the Viet Minh
against the French, changed sides in 1950, then became a key member of the South Vietnamese government, was imprisoned by that same government in 1970, then was imprisoned again by the North Vietnamese in 1975, then escaped to the United States in 1979.
His loathing of communism was reinforced when the Viet Minh
captured his brother Ngo Dinh Khoi in 1945.
He fled French police in 1940 and met Ho Chi Minh in southwestern China before returning to rural northern Vietnam to recruit guerrillas for the Viet Minh
, a forerunner to the southern insurgency later known as the Viet Cong.
Grace a sa bravoure et a son engagement, le camarade Mohamed Benomar Lahrach a gravi tous les echelons de l'armee vietnamienne pour terminer general du Viet Minh