Vignola, Giacomo da
Vignola, Giacomo da(jä`kōmō dä vēnyō`lä), 1507–73, one of the foremost late Renaissance architects in Italy. His real name was Giacomo Barozzi or Barocchio. Appointed (1550) papal architect to Pope Julius III, he spent his later life in Rome, where most of his important works are found. After Michelangelo's death, Vignola succeeded him as architect in charge of the work on St. Peter's. His finest productions are the Villa Caprarola, near Viterbo, for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, and the beautiful Villa Giulia for Pope Julius III in Rome. As designer of the interior (1568) of the Church of the Gesù, in Rome, mother church of the Jesuit order, he developed a plan that greatly influenced ecclesiastical architecture. In the Gesù he combined the longitudinal axis of medieval churches with the central domical scheme of the Renaissance. His designs for the facade of the Gesù were rejected in favor of those by Giacomo della Porta. Vignola is universally known for his treatise (1562) on the five orders of architecture. Based upon the work of Vitruvius, it undertook to formulate definite and minute rules for proportioning the classical orders appearing in the buildings of the Romans. This work, which has been in continuous use, has been scrupulously adhered to by many as an almost inviolable authority.
Vignola, Giacomo Da
(Giacomo Barozzi). Born Oct. 1, 1507, in Vignola, Emilia-Romagna; died July 7, 1573, in Rome. Italian architect. A representative of the late Renaissance .
Vignola began studying in Rome in 1534 with B. Peruzzi and A. da Sangallo the Younger, and worked in Rome, France (1541-43), and Bologna (1543-46). He was an out-standing theoretician and the author of a classical treatise, The Five Orders of Architecture (1562; Russian translation, 1939). In his work Vignola aspired to a solemn monumental structural quality, seeking to develop spatial composition in depth and to enrich the traditional plan schemes of palaces, villas, and churches. Vignola built the first oval-domed church, S. Andrea, on Via Flaminia in Rome (1555), and completed the huge Villa Farnese, designed as a pentahedron with a majestic circular court in the center, in Caprarola, near Viterbo (1558-73), The Gesù Church, headquarters of the Jesuit order in Rome (1568-84), has been the model for many baroque cathedrals. It stresses the importance of the main nave and the brilliantly lighted central cross, while the facade tiers (carried out with alterations in 1575 by G. della Porta) are linked compositionally with volutes and pediments.Integrity of spatial organization also distinguishes the Villa Giulia III, built by Vignola in Rome (1550-55), with its axial composition, effective semicircles of the court facade and stairs of the sunken central court, which serves as the center of the ensemble.
REFERENCESVseobshchaia istoriia arkhitektury, vol. 5. Moscow, 1967. Pages 230-38.
Casotti, M. W. II Vignola, vols. 1-2. Trieste, 1960.