(vē`jəyənŭ`gər) [Sanskrit,=city of victory], ruined city, SE India. It was the capital (14th–16th cent.) of the Hindu Vijayanagar empire, which embraced all India S of the Kistna River and shielded S India from the Muslim kingdoms of the north. At its height during the reign (c.1510–c.1530) of Krishnadeva Raya, the empire had dealings with many Asian and European countries. The city of Vijayanagar, then some 60 mi (95 km) in circumference, flourished as a prosperous trade center and was noted for its artists, writers, and temples. After a crushing defeat of the Hindus at Talikota (1565) Muslim forces utterly demolished the city, and, except for a brief revival, the empire was destroyed.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a feudal state of the 14th to 17th centuries in southern India, south of the Krishna River. It was formed in 1336 as a result of the struggle of southern Indian Hindu feudal nobles against the Sultanate of Delhi. The most powerful ruler of the first (Sangama) dynasty was Devaraya II (reigned 1422-46), who subjugated all of southern India, carried out military campaigns against Ceylon and Burma, and inflicted several defeats on the Bahmani Sultanate. The greatest flowering of Vijayanagar was during the reign of Krishna Deva Raya (reigned 1509-29) of the third (Tuluva) dynasty.

Vijayanagar waged war continuously with the Bahmani state and later with the sultanates that had formed on the territory of the latter. These sultanates inflicted a powerful defeat on Vijayanagar in 1565, after which it began to decline. Toward the middle of the 17th century it disintegrated into a number of principalities. The Vijayanagar period marked the flowering of literature and art of the peoples of southern India.


Alaev, L. B. Iuzhnaia Indiia: Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskaia istoriia XIV-XVIH vekov. Moscow, 1964.
Sewell, R. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar). London, 1924.
Mahalingam, T. V. Economic Life in the Vijayanagar Empire. [Madras] 1951.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Summary: Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh) [India], May 21 (ANI): A criminal carrying a reward of Rs 25,000 on his head was arrested after an exchange of fire with Vijayanagar police here on Tuesday.
The Himalayan Revelation blends mystery and romance with international intrigue; but most of all, it adds the backdrop of Hampi, a UNESCO World Heritage site and capital of the Vijayanagar Empire which was plundered centuries earlier, and which holds a secret buried deep in the Himalayas.
29 -- JSW Steel has planned to commence commercial steel production at the newly commissioned 3.2 million tonnes per annum plant at Vijayanagar in Karnataka by February.
JFE will also provide technical assistance to JSW in the field of automotive steel, and will support operational improvements at JSW Steel's Vijayanagar Works in Karnataka province.
The production increase is attributed to the expansion at its Vijayanagar Works unit.
This path-breaking compilation of data on India's southeastern coast (now in northern Tamil Nadu) during the heyday of Vijayanagar Nayakas and Portuguese settlers is based predominantly on English renderings of Tamil, Telugu, and Sanskrit inscriptions in Annual Reports of Indian Epigraphy and on Portuguese archival sources.
Indeed, he seems to have mastered the geography of and changes in the area of and surrounding Vijayanagar so well that he can challenge the interpretations of the best historians the region has known including the late Burton Stein.
Noboru Karashima's Towards a New Formation: South Indian Society under Vijayanagar Rule focuses on the problems of socio-economic development in South india from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries and provides a sequel to his earlier work dealing with the period of Chola rule.
New Delhi, Nov.6 ( ANI ): Australia's Minister for the Arts Simon Crean MP inaugurated the Kaladham Museum in Vijayanagar, Karnataka, as part of Oz Fest, Australia's largest ever cultural festival in India.