Vilém Mathesius

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Mathesius, Vilém

 

Born Aug. 3, 1882, in Pardubice; died Apr. 12, 1945, in Prague. Czech linguist. Founder and president of the Prague Linguistic Circle. Specialist in general linguistics and English.

Mathesius was one of the first to justify the synchronic approach to the study of language (in “On the Potentiality of Linguistic Phenomena,” 1911). He was one of the founders of functional linguistics, which considers the elements of a language from the viewpoint of their role in the communication process. He concerned himself with the “characterology” of language, by which he meant the comparison of elements of different languages in order to elucidate the typical characteristics of a given language. He elaborated the theory of the actual division of a sentence. His basic works include The Czech Language and General Linguistics (1947) and Functional Analysis of Modern English on the Basis of General Linguistics (1961; both published posthumously).

REFERENCES

Prazhskii lingvisticheskii kruzhok. Moscow, 1967.
Trnka, B. “V. Mathesius.” In Portraits of Linguists, vol. 2. Bloomington, 1966.

V. M. ZHIVOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Objasnjavajuci svojedobno stavove ceskih normativista umnogome slicne stavovima hrvatskoga Vijeca za normu, Vilem Mathesius, jedan od utemeljitelja programa jezicne kulture praske skole, ustvrdio je da je u tih jezikoslovaca, >>zbog stalna citanja tekstova na starijem jeziku i zbog zaljubljenosti u povijest, normalan odnos prema suvremenomu jeziku narusen<< (Mathesius 2015 [1932]: 75).
La teoria de la PFO que vamos a presentar a continuacion es la desarrollada por la segunda Escuela de Praga, representada por las tres escuelas de los seguidores de Vilem Mathesius: Frantisek Danes, Jan Firbas y Petr Sgall y Eva Hajicova.
<<Exploring Vilem Mathesius' Use of the Term Theme>>.
They were all pupils of Vilem Mathesius and members of the Prague Linguistic Circle.
It was published on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of English studies at Charles University in Prague, whose first Professor of English Language and Literature was Vilem Mathesius, much better known internationally as the initiator of the Prague Linguistic Circle and as a linguist.
The first part, entitled "Legacies: Vilem Mathesius and Followers", examines the relevance of Mathesius's work for literary and translation studies; the second part, "Contexts and Outcomes: From Prague Structuralism to Radical Philology", looks at the genesis of the structuralism of the Prague Linguistic Circle as well as into its implications for a number of selected domains.
The second chapter, "Vilem Mathesius as Literary Historian", by Helena Znojemska, deals with Mathesius's views on aesthetics and literary criticism.
Frantisek Danes, uno de los principales teoricos del Circulo Linguistico de Praga, atribuye el concepto a otro praguense: Vilem Mathesius (Danes, 1974).
Their ideas of language as a sign system, of language communication as exchanging and processing of information, of functional differentiation of language use according to communicative needs, Vilem Mathesius's concept of "denotation" (oznacovani) and Vladimir Skalicka's development of the notion of la parole, all these and similar original endeavors were based on the assumption that language refers to, communicates about, represents the world.
Se ofrece una analogia al Circulo Linguistico de Praga: la limitacion de sus actividades que llevo hasta su extincion temporal (hasta 1990) coincidio no solo con los cambios politicos e ideologicos, sino tambien con la desaparicion de su presidente Vilem Mathesius (+ 1945) y la emigracion de su vicepresidente Roman Jakobson (vivio en el extranjero desde 1939).
En esta situacion no es de extranar que ya en el ano 1913 otro importante representante de la futura Escuela de Praga, el anglista Vilem Mathesius formulara en el ensayo <<O problemech Ceskeho pfekladatelstvi>> [Sobre los problemas del arte de traducir checo] la idea de que la calidad de una traduccion no se puede valorar por conceptos filologicos sino que hay que medirla por su calidad artistica.
Ilek (1982), conforme a las concepciones vigentes en su epoca, hace constar que a pesar de no haber constituido una teoria coherente de la traduccion, un destacado representante de la Escuela de Praga, Vilem Mathesius sento las bases metodologicas para los futuros estudios traductologicos al introducir los criterios para una mas exacta clasificacion y jerarquizacion de los datos linguisticos, con lo que subrayo la fase interpretativa del proceso de traduccion abriendo el paso para una comparacion analitica de los sistemas linguisticos desde el punto de vista funcional.