vinegar

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vinegar,

sour liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid and water, produced by the action of bacteria on dilute solutions of ethyl alcohol derived from previous yeast fermentationfermentation,
process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. Fermentation is achieved by somewhat different chemical sequences in different species of organisms.
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. The coloring and flavoring are characteristic of the alcoholic liquor (as cider, beer, wine, fermented fruit juices, solutions of barley malt, hydrolyzed cereals, starches, or sugars) from which the vinegar is made. Vinegar is used as a salad dressing, a preservative, a household remedy to allay irritations, a mild disinfectant, and, in cooking, as a fiber softener. Vinegar has been known from antiquity as a natural byproduct of wine; the name is derived from the French vin aigre [sour wine]. The manufacture as a separate industry began in France in the 17th cent. The wasteful, slow, or natural, process, a spontaneous fermentation in casks half full of beechwood shavings exposed to the atmosphere by bung holes, was superseded in the early 19th cent. by the quick, or generator, method. The generator used in present-day commercial manufacture is usually a tall, truncated cone or vertical, wood tank with a false bottom perforated to admit air that is generally forced through by a blower. The alcoholic solution is allowed to drip through a filling of hard-wood shavings or other material presenting a large surface area. Vinegar made by this method must be aged to remove a natural harshness. It is generally clarified, then pasteurized. Some vinegars are subjected to distillation which removes most of the flavorings other than acetic acid. In another process, the solution is aerated directly by a spinning rotor. The wood shavings are not needed in this case, and the process runs continuously. Acetic fermentation may be impeded by an excessive growth of mother of vinegar, a slimy mass of bacteria, or of the parasitic vinegar eel, a minute, threadlike worm.

vinegar

[′vin·ə·gər]
(materials)
The product of the incomplete oxidation to acetic acid of ethyl alcohol produced by a primary fermentation of vegetable materials; contains not less than 4 grams of acetic acid per gallon; used in preparation of pickled fruits and vegetables and in salad dressing.

vinegar

given to Jesus to drink. [N.T.: Matthew 26:34, 48]

vinegar

a sour-tasting liquid consisting of impure dilute acetic acid, made by oxidation of the ethyl alcohol in beer, wine, or cider. It is used as a condiment or preservative
References in classic literature ?
Miss Jenny repaired to the kitchen, scissors in hand, found the brown paper and found the vinegar, and skilfully cut out and steeped six large plasters.
And vinegar"--and producing that condiment-- "haven't I heard something about vinegar and brown paper?
And as for vinegar, can any soldiers forget that solitary soldier, who, when the sun was darkened--"
This inquiry produced in Miss Knag violent symptoms of a relapse; and several young ladies, darting angry looks at Kate, applied more vinegar and hartshorn, and said it was 'a shame.'
In culinary school, we were taught that not all local vinegars are created equal: one major brand has double the acidity of others so recipes must be adjusted accordingly.
In producing these 'fake' and adulterated vinegars, synthetic acetic acid is reportedly used.
Aside from affecting the health of Filipinos, Agriculture Secretary Emmanuel Pinol said that 'fake vinegars' were also doing harm to the local vinegar-making industry.
With wine vinegars - the next fermentation on from wine itself - draw on your existing knowledge, says Angela.
She can find a use for vinegar in almost every moment, including sausage rolls dunked in red wine vinegar: "It cuts through the fattiness!" She says that a reference to primrose vinegar in a 1930s cookbook made her realise how few different vinegars could be found in cookbooks written since the 19th century.
The researchers produced vinegars from riceberry wines by using two strains of yeast and two strains of Acetobacter under two fermentation conditions.