vineyard

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vineyard,

land on which cultivation of the grapegrape,
common name for the Vitaceae, a family of mostly climbing shrubs, widespread in tropical and subtropical regions and extending into the temperate zones. The woody vines, or lianas, climb by means of tendrils, which botanically are adaptations of terminal buds.
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—known as viticulture—takes place. As many as 40 varieties of grape, Vitis vinifera, are known. The few that grow wild are generally not used; all domesticated varieties require careful cultivation to produce good fruit. While the primary purpose of vineyards throughout history has been the production of grapes for winewine,
alcoholic beverage made by the fermentation of the juice of the grape. Wine is so ancient that its origin is unknown. The earliest archaeological evidence of winemaking dates to 8,000 years ago, and wine is mentioned in early Egyptian inscriptions and in the literature of
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, many vines, largely in the New World, are cultivated for eating grapes, grape juice, and dried grapes, or raisins.

Viticulture depends on such factors as sunlight, soil, moisture, wind, and pest and disease control. The best wines result from warm, dry conditions. Grape vines can be transplanted from established vineyards, or propagated from cuttings of new growth with two or three buds. Two thirds of the grape vines in the United States grow in California, mostly in the San Francisco Bay area, supplying the bulk of the grapes for the expansion of the American wine industry since 1950. Washington and New York rank next among the 13 grape-growing states.

Vineyard Pests and Diseases

Phylloxeraphylloxera
, small, sap-eating, greenish insect of the genus Phylloxera, closely related to the aphid. Phylloxeras feed on leaves and roots, and many species produce galls on deciduous trees.
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, a North American insect that kills the vine by feeding on the root, was not identified until the late 19th cent. It caused the failure of early plantings of European grapes in the E United States and, beginning about 1860, spread around the world, probably traveling on resistant American vines, infecting V. vinifera from France to Australia to California. French and American researchers finally saved the world's wine industry by grafting phylloxera-susceptible European vines onto resistant E American roots. Virtually all wine grapevines in Europe and California are grafted to rootstocks of E American origin. In 1979 phylloxera B overcame the resistance of the dominant rootstock in Northern California vineyards; thousands of acres subsequently were replanted with more resistant rootstocks.

Besides phylloxera, the V. vinifera of the Pacific slope is harassed by a variety of pests and diseases, including black measles, little-leaf, nematodes, red spiders, rabbits, and gophers. Among the afflictions of vineyards in the E United States are mildewmildew,
name for certain fungi and protists, for the diseases they cause in various crops, and for the discoloration (and sometimes the weakening and disintegration) they cause in such materials as leather, fabrics, and paper.
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, a devastating fungal disease; the grape-berry moth, which destroys fruit by causing it to color prematurely; the grapevine beetle, which eats the new buds in spring; climbing cutworms, which hide in the ground during the day and feed on the buds at night; black rot, which shrivels the fruit; and crown rot, which destroys the vines of some varieties.

Prophylaxis of healthy vines and treatment of afflicted ones are but two of the intensive, continuous aspects of viticulture. From the early stages of tending a vineyard, when appropriate vines must be selected and congenial soil chosen for them, through the operations of cutting, layering, grafting, planting, and fertilizing, up to the gathering of the crop, the grower must apply equal measures of skill, knowledge, and industry.

History

Vineyards are believed to have been introduced to Europe by the Phocaeans c.600 B.C. References by Homer and Vergil and in the Bible confirm that viticulture was widespread in the Mediterranean region in antiquity. Large areas of France, Italy, the Rhineland, Spain, and Portugal eventually proved hospitable to V. vinifera, which also flourished in Greece, North Africa, the Canary Islands, and the Azores. In A.D. 81 Emperor Domitian, fearing grain scarcity, restricted the spread of vineyards in Italy. The Romans also carried the vine to England, where its cultivation was attempted sporadically until the 19th cent. with scant success. Repeated attempts to transplant grapes to the New World began early in the 17th cent. but Tuscan vine growers in Virginia (working for Thomas Jefferson) and German immigrants from the Rhineland to Pennsylvania failed. Grape growing did not succeed in the early United States until the introduction of commercial varieties—the Catawba in 1830 and the Concord in 1849—of phylloxera-resistant species native to the E United States.

References in periodicals archive ?
After the third stop, Vinyard and Amaya approached Ghaisar's vehicle, with guns drawn.
Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H., Vinyard, W.C., Bicudo, C.E.M.
The high proportion of yolk-sac larvae (0.40) and larvae (0.56) collected in Honey Creek also suggests that even small, early developmental stages of larval fish can avoid drifting (Kennedy and Vinyard 1997).
Lunardi and other guests visited Chioda's Trattoria with Caio Galliac of Global Wines Inc., distributor of Marta's Vinyard wines.
Throughout the twentieth century, Michigan was home to nearly every political movement that emerged from grassroots origins, notes JoEllen Vinyard in her compelling, lively history.
Comprehensive Medical's co-founders Bryan Vinyard and Robert Thomas will be appointed to Intermedix's management board.Country: USA, Sector: Business and Consumer Services, HealthcareTarget: Comprehensive Medical Billing Solutions IncBuyer: Intermedix CorporationType: Corporate acquisitionStatus: Closed
VINYARD VINES polo in lemonade, $62; * Red Square, 1000 Highland Colony Pkwy, Ridgeland, 601.853.8960, www.redsquareclothingco.com.
Yarm Vinyard will be at home to St Peter's while Stockton Churches Portrack travel to Sunderland Methodist Circuit in the League Cup semi-final.
* CELEBRATING: Ian and Rebecca Sheveling at their vinyard at Woodhouse Farm AC180909Bvine-01-3.jpg
In The Irish on the Urban Frontier: Detroit 1850-1890 (1976), JoEllen McNergney Vinyard, employs Detroit as evidence that Midwest Irish-Americans achieved acceptability and respectability at a quicker pace than those in the East, especially New England.
De igual manera el tamano y los movimientos lentos y regulares que presentan en general los cladoceros propician una mayor vulnerabilidad de los mismos (O'Brien 1979, Vinyard 1980, Li et al.
(Front row, from left) Sammy Islam, Usman Bakari, Aliya Ali, Ahmed, Shareiaiki; (back row) Daniel Vinyard, Arif Nassor, Abraar Majid, Sakayiya Abdi and Amal Ridwan.; RN210508RUGB7 EYES ON THE TARGET...