Zelichowics, Chemistry Of Viologens, Heterocycles, 32, 2241 (1991).
Summary: The rate constants for the dimerization of the reduced products of methyl viologen dication (MV2+) of the processes (a) methyl viologen cation radical (MV+*), (EQUATION) and (EQUATION) and (b) methyl viologen neutral (MV), (EQUATION) and (EQUATION) were obtained through linear scan- / cyclic-voltammetry and the use of Olmstead-Hamilton-Nicholson theory.
Webb, "Rapid small intestinal permeability assay based on riboflavin and lactulose detected by bis-boronic acid appended benzyl viologens," Clinica Chimica Acta, vol.
Zuniga et al., "Rapid multi-well assay for the analysis of sugar gut permeability markers: discrimination of sugar alcohols with a fluorescent probe array based on boronic acid appended viologens," Analytical Chemistry, vol.
By the use of this solvent system (9: 1(v/v) DMF-H2O mixed solution) the comprehensive study of non-alkyl group substituted viologens and long alkyl chain viologens with bCD is possible.
Applications of viologens  cannot be limited to its short alkyl group substituents.
Sun, "Selective positioning of CB on two linked viologens and electrochemically driven movement of the host molecule," European Journal of Organic Chemistry, no.
In the CB host-guest chemistry, viologen derivatives were often used as guest molecules because of their outstanding electron-accepting properties.
Continuous glucose detection using boronic acid-substituted viologens
in fluorescent hydrogels: linker effects and extension to fiber optics.
Voltammetric studies have also been carried out on viologens
and pyridinium compounds which are an important class of compounds [14, 15].
Toxicity of some viologens
towards cancer cells have also been reported .