Vira

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Vira

 

(also vera), in ancient Rus’ a monetary fine to be paid to the prince for the crime of murdering a freeman.

The origin of the term vira is in dispute. In accordance with Russkaia Pravda (the law code of Rus’), 40 grivny (an old monetary unit) were to be paid for murdering an ordinary freeman, and 80 was the fine for murdering a representative of the prince’s administration (an ognishchanin [household manager] or tiun [steward]). A half-vira (2Q grivny) was imposed for inflicting serious personal injuries and (in accordance with the Expanded Code) for killing an unfaithful wife. When the murderer was unknown, the obshchina-verv’, (peasant commune) in which the victim was found paid a special, “extraordinary” vira. This custom was widespread as late as the 16th century.

REFERENCES

Geiman, V. G. “Pravo i sud.” In Istoriia kul’tury Drevnei Rusi, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie. Moscow, 1965.
Zimin, A. A. “Feodal’naia gosudarstvennost’ i Russkaia Pravda.” In the collection Istoricheskie zapiski, vol. 76. Moscow, 1965.

S. M. KASHTANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
The suburban train services between Bhayander and Virar will commence once the water level on tracks comes down further, he said.
The Gujarat Police had raided the Virar Ashram in the last week of October suspecting that Narayan Sai was hiding there.
As per the latest update, a fast local train started from Virar at 10.43 am after clamping points.
The incident has sent shock waves through Virar and surrounding suburbs.
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The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers Union Limited, known generally as Amul Dairy, launched the Virar plant, the sixth facility for Amul in the country, on the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, India's first home minister.
"Train movement was suspended on the fast corridor between Vasai Road and Virar due to waterlogging," Western Railway added.
Several demands have been put forth to the authorities -- a Virar local every three minutes; one Dahanu local every 30 minutes; increased services in the Borivili-Churchgate sector, adequate number of bridges for pedestrians, ticket counters, toilet facilities and drinking water at all stations, efficient mechanism at every station for attending to accident victims and taking them to hospital without wasting time, construction of Mumbai Central-Borivili line.
He was rushed to the hospital however he cannot be saved," said Anil Dave, SI, Virar.
Trouble began after crowds swelled on the platforms at Borivali station, a major junction, following the cancellation of a train even as trains from Virar to Churchgate, the South Mumbai business district, arrived packed to capacity.
Summary: Palghar (Maharashtra) [India], June 10 (ANI): A car got stuck in a fast-moving wave after the vehicle was driven too close to the seashore on a beach in Virar city of the district on Monday.