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(also vera), in ancient Rus’ a monetary fine to be paid to the prince for the crime of murdering a freeman.

The origin of the term vira is in dispute. In accordance with Russkaia Pravda (the law code of Rus’), 40 grivny (an old monetary unit) were to be paid for murdering an ordinary freeman, and 80 was the fine for murdering a representative of the prince’s administration (an ognishchanin [household manager] or tiun [steward]). A half-vira (2Q grivny) was imposed for inflicting serious personal injuries and (in accordance with the Expanded Code) for killing an unfaithful wife. When the murderer was unknown, the obshchina-verv’, (peasant commune) in which the victim was found paid a special, “extraordinary” vira. This custom was widespread as late as the 16th century.


Geiman, V. G. “Pravo i sud.” In Istoriia kul’tury Drevnei Rusi, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie. Moscow, 1965.
Zimin, A. A. “Feodal’naia gosudarstvennost’ i Russkaia Pravda.” In the collection Istoricheskie zapiski, vol. 76. Moscow, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
The incident has sent shock waves through Virar and surrounding suburbs.
The rain was scheduled from Churchgate to Virar," said Mohan Karnik, a local.
8billion (Dh108million), the Virar plant, with an installed capacity of 1 million litre of milk processing per day, covers an area of 4.
The Assistant Municipal Commissioner of the Vasai- Virar Municipal Corporation, Sudhakar Sankhe said that they began the demolition after issuing a notice to Narayan, who did not bother to respond.
Making a presentation before the chief minister and other state government officials, Western Railway General Manager Mahesh Kumar said that along the 60km route between the Oval ground in south Mumbai and Virar, there will be 26 stations in all.
Several demands have been put forth to the authorities -- a Virar local every three minutes; one Dahanu local every 30 minutes; increased services in the Borivili-Churchgate sector, adequate number of bridges for pedestrians, ticket counters, toilet facilities and drinking water at all stations, efficient mechanism at every station for attending to accident victims and taking them to hospital without wasting time, construction of Mumbai Central-Borivili line.
The incident took place in Sainath Nagar when Mohammad Shaikh, 44, spat on the wire that supplies power to the Virar Railway Station.
They shout, abuse and push out passengers when we try to get into Virar trains.
Tenders are invited for Contract for hiring of one non-AC vehicle(Tata Sumo/Tavera or same segment vehicle)with ferry Crew and Guards between Virar Railway station and Virar old scrap yard for a period of three months.
Tenders are invited for Hiring of one non-AC vehicle (Tata Sumo/Tavera or same segment vehicle) for a period of one year with driver to ferry Crew and Guards between Virar Railway Station and Virar old scrap yard.
Tenders are invited for Supply of stationery articles for the year 2015-16, for various mjp offices in thane, mumbai, virar and ambernath
Tenders are invited for Ccg EaAo Vr Section : Quarrying And Supplying Of Machine Crushed Stone Ballast From The Western Railway Quarry At Virar For A Period Of One Year (29156 Cum.