Viriatus


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Viriatus

(vērēä`təs), d. 139 B.C., leader of the Lusitani (see LusitaniaLusitania
, Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula. As constituted (c.A.D. 5) by Augustus it included all of modern central Portugal as well as much of W Spain. The province took its name from the Lusitani, a group of warlike tribes who, despite defeats, resisted Roman
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). One of the survivors of the massacre of the Lusitani by the Roman praetor Servius Sulpicius Galba, Viriatus rose as a popular leader and persuaded his countrymen to resist Roman rule. He gathered an army and in 147 B.C. defeated the Romans. During the next two years he established control over a considerable area. One Roman defeat followed another. The victories of Viriatus encouraged the Celtiberians to renew their resistance to Rome. The senate then sent an army under Fabius Maximus Servilianus, which Viritus succeeded in trapping. Instead of destroying this army, he concluded a peace and allowed the Romans to leave. For this act of clemency he was declared a friend of Rome by the senate. In 139, however, the successor of Servilianus, Servilius Caepio, with the tacit consent of the senate, renewed the war. Viriatus, probably swayed by his countrymen, who were weary of the war, opened negotiations with Caepio, who brought the war to an end by bribing Viriatus' emissaries to kill him. His rule collapsed after his assassination.
References in classic literature ?
Lusitania had a Viriatus, Rome a Caesar, Carthage a Hannibal, Greece an Alexander, Castile a Count Fernan Gonzalez, Valencia a Cid, Andalusia a Gonzalo Fernandez, Estremadura a Diego Garcia de Paredes, Jerez a Garci Perez de Vargas, Toledo a Garcilaso, Seville a Don Manuel de Leon, to read of whose valiant deeds will entertain and instruct the loftiest minds and fill them with delight and wonder.
In my 2008 book, The Ambivalence of Imperial Discourse, I dedicate three chapters to the representation and interpretation of historical characters--namely Viriatus, Jugurtha, and Scipio Aemilianus--and the historical events surrounding the final siege and destruction of the Celtiberian city in Cervantes's play.
Although Cervantes did not invent this suicide episode, naming the boy Bariato (or Variato) and associating him with the legendary Lusitanian hero Viriatus (d.
In a recent article, Carlos Moreno Hernandez disagrees with the association of Bariato and Viriatus, and dedicates more than two pages of his article to explaining why he feels that my specific interpretation of the play as being negatively critical of Philip's incursion into Portugal is an "inexactitud" (20).
If Moreno Hernandez does not feel that Bariato represents Viriatus, then he should provide an alternative explanation for the origins of the name of Cervantes's character and develop the questions of why it is so similar to Viriatus; the river Duero specifically mentions Lusitania, Viriatus's homeland, not Portugal.
Therefore, my interpretation that Bariato represents Viriatus, serving as a censure of Philip II's taking of Portugal, still stands, as Cervantes was the first one to name the boy.
(6) The Times compared the defence of Lisbon by Portuguese guerrillas on the Sierra de Estrella to the heroic defence of Lusitania by the shepherd leader Viriatus against Romans invaders (14 January 1811).
Agg in one of the earliest pamphlets on the event in which the rising is compared to the ancient Spanish rebellion against the Roman Sempronius and the insurrection of Viriatus (Agg 60-64).