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see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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; vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also lactoflavin and Vitamin B2), an important and biologically active substance that is a derivative of the heterocyclic compound isoalloxazine attached to ribitol, a multi-atomic alcohol.

Riboflavin is widely distributed in the cells of microorganisms, plants, and animals, although animals are unable to bio-synthesize riboflavin and must obtain it with food. The biological role of riboflavin is determined by the presence of its derivatives—flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD)—in a series of oxidation and reducing enzymes (flavoproteins) during electron transfer reactions and the metabolism of amino acids and other vitamins.

In man, many diseases are accompanied by disorders of the metabolism of riboflavin. A deficiency of riboflavin results in skin lesions and vision disorders, while an acute insufficiency leads to the development of a comatose state. Riboflavin is present in most food products, including brewer’s yeast, egg yolk, beef liver, and milk products. It is also synthesized by intestinal bacteria.

The structure of riboflavin was independently established in 1935 through chemical synthesis both by R. Kuhn and P. Karrer. Riboflavin is used in medicine as a vitamin preparation.


Vitaminy. Moscow, 1974. Chapter 8.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


C17H20N4O6 A water-soluble, yellow orange fluorescent pigment that is essential to human nutrition as a component of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Also known as lactoflavin; vitamin B2; vitamin G.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, riboflavine
a yellow water-soluble vitamin of the B complex that occurs in green vegetables, germinating seeds, and in milk, fish, egg yolk, liver, and kidney. It is essential for the carbohydrate metabolism of cells. It is used as a permitted food colour, yellow or orange-yellow (E101). Formula: C17H20N4O6
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Fluorescence spectroscopy was successfully applied for vitamin B-2 determination having lesser sensitivity for detection [9].
Recommended Daily Allowance of protein, as well as 4.6 percent of the vitamin B-2, 14.6 percent of niacin, 62.5 percent of folacin and 170 percent of vitamin B-12.
Supplement Facts Institute of Medicine Recommendation DV Vitamin A 3,000 IU 5,000 IU Vitamin C 90 mg 60 mg Vitamin D 400 IU 400 IU Vitamin E 33 IU 30 IU Vitamin K 120 mcg 80 mcg Thiamin (Vitamin B-1) 1.2 mg 1.5 mg Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) 1.3 mg 1.7 mg Niacin (Vitamin B-3) 16 mg 20 mg Vitamin B-6 1.7 mg 2 mg Folic Acid 400 mcg 400 mcg Vitamin B-12 2.4 mcg 6 mcg Biotin 30 mcg 300 mcg Pantothenic Acid 5 mg 10 mg Calcium 1,200 mg 1,000 mg Iron 18 mg 18 mg Phosphorus 700 mg 1,000 mg Magnesium 420 mg 400 mg Zinc 11 mg 15 mg Copper 0.9 mg 2 mg Selenium 55 mcg 70 mcg Chromium 35 mcg 120 mcg Iodine 150 mcg 150 mcg Manganese 2.3 mg 2 mg Molybdenum 45 mcg 75 mcg Chloride 2,300 mg 3,400 mg Potassium 4,700 mg 3 500 mg Boron * Nickel * Silicon * Tin * Vanadium * * Daily Value of established.
Here's how the nutrients in Chandra's multi compare to the government recommendations (that's the Daily Value, or DV): Vitamin or Mineral Chandra's Multi Daily Value Vitamin A 1,333 IU 5,000 IU Beta-carotene 26,600 IU 5,000 IU * Vitamin B-1 2.2 mg 1.5 mg Vitamin B-2 1.5 mg 1.7 mg Niacin 16 mg 20 mg Vitamin B-6 3 mg 2 mg Folate (folic acid) 400 mcg 400 mcg Vitamin B-12 4 mcg 6 mcg Vitamin C 80 mg 60 mg Vitamin D 140 IU 400 IU Vitamin E 44 IU 30 IU Iron 16 mg 18 mg Zinc 14 mg 15 mg Copper 1.4 mg 2 mg Selenium 20 mcg 70 mcg Iodine 200 mcg 150 mcg Calcium 200 mg 1,000 mg Magnesium 100 mg 400 mg * There is no DV for beta-carotene.