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the popular name for the route that existed in the 19th and early 20th centuries along which arrestees were sent from Moscow through Vladimir to Siberia. The term was used mainly in reference to the part of the route between Moscow and Vladimir. Thousands of political prisoners traveled along the Vladimirka. In 1919 the Vladimir highway in Moscow was renamed “the highway of the Zealots” in memory of the revolutionaries. The Vladimirka was frequently depicted in works of literature and art—for example, folk songs, the verses of N. A. Nekrasov, and I. I. Levitan’s painting.