Vojvodina


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Vojvodina

or

Voivodina

(both: voi'vōdē`nä), autonomous province (1991 pop. 2,013,889), 8,301 sq mi (21,500 sq km), N Serbia. Novi SadNovi Sad
, Ger. Neusatz, Hung. Újvidék, city (1991 pop. 179,626), N Serbia, on the Danube River. The chief city and administrative center of Vojvodina prov.
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 is the chief city and administrative center. A part of the Pannonian Plain, it is watered by the Danube, the Tisza, and the Sava rivers and is one of the most densely populated parts of Serbia. About 60% of the land is under cultivation. It is the breadbasket of Serbia; cereals, fruit (notably plums, used for brandy), grapes, and vegetables are extensively cultivated. Cattle raising is also important, and food processing is the most significant industry. Besides Novi Sad, the chief cities are Subotica, Zrenjanin, Sombor, and Pančevo. The region was part of Hungary and Croatia before its conquest by the Turks in the 16th cent., and it was restored to the Hungarian crown by the Treaty of Passarowitz (1699). Parts of the region were included in the military frontier of S Hungary in the 18th cent., and the whole region was settled with Serbian and Croatian fugitives from the Ottoman Empire, as well as by German colonists. The present population is still mixed and includes Serbs, Croats, Magyars (Hungarians), Romanians, and Slovaks. The region was ceded (1920) to Yugoslavia by the Treaty of Trianon, and it received autonomy in 1946. As constituted in 1946, the Vojvodina consists of three sections—the Srem, in the southwest, which was part of Croatia-Slavonia until 1918; the Backa, in the northwest, which was an integral part of Hungary; and the western part of the Banat of Temesvar. Under the Yugoslavian constitution of 1974, Vojvodina and Serbia's other province Kosovo were designated autonomous provinces within Serbia. The autonomy, however, was largely rescinded in the 1990 Serbian constitution, but legislation since has partially restored (2002) and strengthened (2009) Vojvodina's autonomy.

Vojvodina

 

an autonomous region in the Socialist Republic of Serbia, in Yugoslavia. Area, 21,500 sq km. Population, 1,930,000 (1968), mainly Serbs and Croats (62 percent), as well as Hungarians (23 percent), Slovaks (4 percent), Rumanians (3 percent), and other nationalities. About one-third of the population lives in cities. Administrative center, Novi Sad.

Vojvodina is located in the southern, weakly dissected part of the Central Danube Plain (altitude 70-250 m). The isolated Fruska Gora Ridge (altitude, up to 539 m) is in the southwest and the spurs of the Southern Carpathians (altitude, up to 641 m) in the southeast. The region has a temperate continental climate. The average July temperature is 22-24° C and the average January temperature is −1.2° to 2.6° C. Average precipitation is 550-750 mm a year. The major rivers of the region are the Danube, Tisa, and Tamis. Chernozem steppe landscapes predominate.

In the sixth century Slavs settled in the territory of Vojvodina. In the late ninth century it was settled by Hungarians and later became part of the kingdom of Hungary; it was under the rule of the Hapsburg monarchy from 1526 until 1918. During the Revolution of 1848-49 in Hungary there were antifeudal manifestations by Serbian peasants in Vojvodina. In May 1848 the national skupština (council) of several comitats of southern Hungary inhabited by Serbs proclaimed the autonomy of Vojvodina; the Hungarian revolutionary government refused to recognize it. In the middle of the 19th century the merger of Srem, Banat, and Backa resulted in the establishment of a separate duchy (hence the name in Serbian, Vojvodina; in German, Herzogtum—duchy) that existed until 1860. In 1918 Vojvodina became part of the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became Yugoslavia in 1929.

Vojvodina is the main breadbasket of Yugoslavia. More than 55 percent of its gainfully employed population work in agriculture, and 13 percent in industry. Vojvodina produces about one-fourth of the total Yugoslavian output of wheat, about two-fifths of the corn, two-thirds of the hemp, threefourths of the sunflowers, and one-half of the sugar beets. Horticulture, viticulture, and meat and dairy animal husbandry are also practiced. Oil and gas are extracted in the eastern part of Vojvodina. The province has a large-scale food industry, primarily processing of local agricultural raw materials (flour, butter, sugar, hemp); a textile industry; agricultural and electrotechnical machine-building in Novi Sad and Subotica; petrochemistry in Pancevo; the production of mineral fertilizers in Pancevo and Subotica; and cement production in Beocin. There is navigation on the Danube.

L. A. AVDEICHEV

Vojvodina

, Voivodina
an autonomous region of NE Serbia and Montenegro, in N Serbia. Capital: Novi Sad. Pop.: 2 024 487 (2002). Area: 22 489 sq. km (8683 sq. miles)
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