The objectives of this work were to (1) verify whether urea+S can mitigate N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation
compared with conventional N fertilisers, and (2) evaluate the efficiency of N and S sources in terms of plant nutrition, yield components, and grain yield (GY) for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in three different soil textures.
3), so the N unaccounted for was probably lost in gaseous form, either as N[H.sub.3] gas through volatilisation
or [N.sub.2]O and/or [N.sub.2] gases through denitrification.
A delay in urea hydrolysis by the action of NBPT has the potential not only to minimise the risk of N losses via N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
from soil, but also to improve the plant bioavailability of urea-derived N (Dawar et al.
As pointed out above gaseous emissions of nitrogen via ammonia volatilisation
, nitrification, and denitrification are the dominant mechanisms for the loss of fertiliser nitrogen from Australian agroecosystems.
Snelgrove, who pointed out that arsenic might also contribute to gold losses through volatilisation
, while J.C.
risk of heightened volatilisation
of ammonia when using some nitrification inhibitors), which underscores the need for studies that simultaneously measure volatilisation
, leaching and [N.sub.2]O emissions.
The control and urea-treated soil was sampled immediately after treatment application (Day 0), and days 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 (when nitrogen loss via volatilisation
had decreased to <0.5% of applied N per day), Day 16, and Day 32 (when nitrification was expected to be complete).
Although urease inhibitors are effective at decreasing N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
by slowing the rate of urea hydrolysis and reducing the risk of elevated pH that drives N[H.sub.3] formation, their impact can be variable due to the influence of climatic conditions, soil type, and land use on N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
from the literature to calculate plant-available N is difficult because of the variability in estimates and measurements (Robinson and Polglase 2000), and/or the lack of data (Chambers 1996).
Notably, the application of 3.8 mm of water within one day of urea application, a rate of 'rainfall' not expected to reduce N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
, resulted in a measured N[H.sub.3] loss in the range of 38 to 41% of N applied (Holcomb et al.
The potential for urea hydrolysis to affect a soil's CEC and subsequent N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
could be the focus of a separate independent study using the rapid SIFT-MS measurement technique.
urea), when surface-applied, are susceptible to loss of ammonia to the atmosphere via the process of volatilisation
(Freney et al.