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an upland along the right bank of the Volga, extending from Gorky to Volgograd. The maximum elevation is 375 m (Zhiguli). The upland is composed of Mesozoic and Paleogene sands, clays, marl, chalk, and opokas. Paleozoic limestones and dolomites outcrop in the north and on tectonic ridges and domes. The eastern and northern slopes of the Volga Upland are steep, and the western slope is gentle. Erosion relief predominates, complicated by landslides along the bank of the Volga. Karst is well developed at Zhiguli and elsewhere.
There are forest-steppe and steppe landscapes. Much of the area has been plowed up and planted to wheat, corn, and hemp. Mineral resources include petroleum, combustible gas and shales, phosphorites, and mineral building materials.