Volhynia


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Volhynia

(vŏlĭ`nyə), Ukr. and Rus. Volyn, Pol. Wołyń, historic region, W Ukraine, around the headstreams of the Pripyat and Western Bug rivers in an area of forests, lakes, and marshlands. One of the oldest Slavic settlements in Europe, it derived its name from the extinct city of Volyn or Velyn, said to have stood on the Western Bug. Volhynia's early history from c.981 coincides with that of the duchies of Volodymyr (see Volodymyr-VolynskyyVolodymyr-Volynskyy
, Pol. Włodzimierz, Rus. Vladimir-Volynski, city (1989 pop. 38,000), NW Ukraine. It was founded in the 9th cent. and supposedly refounded in 988 by the Grand Duke Vladimir I (Volodymyr I) of Kievan Rus.
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) and Halych. After the disintegration (c.1340) of the grand duchy of Halych-Volodymyr, Volhynia was divided (c.1388) between Poland (western part) and Lithuania (eastern part). With the Polish-Lithuanian union of 1569, Volhynia became a quasi-autonomous province of Poland. During the second and third partitions of Poland (1793, 1795), Volhynia passed to Russia and was made (1797) a province. In 1921 the Treaty of Riga returned W Volhynia to Poland, but the rest passed to Ukraine. Poland ceded its section of Volhynia to the USSR in 1939, and the Soviet-Polish border agreement of 1945 confirmed it as a Soviet possession. In 1943–44 the region was the scene of ethnic massacres in which some 100,000 Poles died and some 20,000 Ukrainians were killed in revenge. This section constitutes the Volyn region, a rich agricultural lowland and coal-mining area.
References in periodicals archive ?
For example, when the expert Jew German Barats traveled to the southwestern region of Russia (Kiev, Podolia, and Volhynia provinces) to popularize "the enrollment of Jewish children into government-sponsored Jewish schools" the Hasidic Jews of Kamenets-Podol'sk threw stones at him.
"Banderism has become part of state ideology," former Polish prime mnister Leszek Miller wrote recently, "and the genocidal Volhynia murders serve the formation of a new Ukrainian identity."
His birthplace was Lutsk in Volhynia, then a city in Poland and now in northwest Ukraine with a population of over 200,000.
(408) Ryszard Szawlowsi, Genocide Committed by Ukrainian Nationalists on the Polish Population During World War H, ELECTRONIC MUSEUM, http://www.electronicmuseum.ca/ Poland-WW2/ukrainian_insurgent_atrocities/uia_ukrainian_genocide.html (last visited June 15, 2012); Genocide, Ethnic Cleasnsing, and Deportation: How Volhynia Became West
If the Ukrainians are to be allowed to sing such political songs as 1944, perhaps they could sing of Volhynia, in 1943, where Stepan Bandera - a man whose T-shirt many in the Kiev junta wear and revere - murdered 100,000 Polish and Jewish people on behalf of Nazi Germany.
Rejecting wholesale the paradigm of Austrian wartime anthropology identified by Evans, she concluded that Ukrainian refugees from Volhynia were, in fact, deeply Mongolised.
"The terrifying things that have happened in recent months in the Khelm region force me to publicly defend our Christian brothers in Volhynia, Khelm, Podlachia, and Polesie regions and to call upon you to pray for them and to repent and ask for our Lord's mercy." (25) Official censorship prevented the publication of this pastoral letter, which in itself caused comment in the Polish press.
In the early nineteenth century, for example, most Poles identified "Ukraine" as the region around Kiev, that is, the Kiev Province of the Russian Empire (for them, Volhynia and Podolia, to say nothing of Austrian Galicia, were not part of Ukraine); many Russians, including so-called "Little Russians" or Ukrainians, defined it in terms of the area around the city of Kharkiv and east to Kursk and Voronezh, that is, the lands of the old "Hetmanate" and Sloboda Ukraine (most of which was never a part of Poland), while still others thought of Ukraine in terms of the entire region from the Carpathians to the Kuban, that is, the entire expanse of the Pontic Steppe and beyond.
Having been dismissed from the court of John Casimir for quarrelling with a group of young Poles, the cousins return to their home Volhynia, where both become, honourably, involved with the wife of Falbofsky, a Polish noble, who sets a trap, from which Chelminsky escapes.
Furthermore, it is crucial to mention that this poem is also a version of one written by the inspiration for Zoli's character, Papusza: "Bloody Tears: What We Went Through Under the Germans in Volhynia in the Years '43 and '44." Obviously Zoli's poem borrows directly from the title, though the time period it selects is a year earlier than Papusza's, McCann conspicuously reworking the order of descendency.
Poland, which, after the Treaty with Russia at Riga (in 1921), incorporated the Ukrainian provinces of Kholm, Volen (Volhynia), Polissya and Pidlashshya, and now has within its borders about 7 millions of Ukrainians, went even so far as to repudiate obligations towards all her national minorities under the international treaties, declaring to the world, on the forum of the League of Nations, that the problem of national minorities within Poland was her internal problem (Swystun 1939, 11-12).