Cramer, "Characteristics of Voltage Controlled Oscillators
Implemented With Tunable Ferroelectric High-k Capacitors," 15th IEEE International symposium on the applications of ferroelectrics, Sunset Beach, NC, 2006, pp.
Navickas, et al., "Phase noise minimization in CMOS voltage controlled oscillators
", in Acta Physica Polonica A.
CMOS quadrature voltage controlled oscillators
(QVCOs) are essential circuit blocks in fully-integrated CMOS image-rejection, direct conversion, or low-IF receiver and transmitter systems .
But the noise levels of conventional LDOs may not be low enough for noise-sensitive analog and mixed-signal circuits such as voltage controlled oscillators
i (VCOs), phase locked loops (PLLs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs).
The rest of the book describes RFIC designs including RF integrated LNAs, VCO automatic amplitude control loops, voltage controlled oscillators
, power amplifiers, and fully integrated transformer-based circuits.
Voltage controlled oscillators
(VCO) are used in almost all radio and RF applications including cell phones, cable modems, satellite terminals, basestations, radar, missile guidance systems, radios, military communication equipment, optical multiplexers and transmitters.
These devices are targeted to be used as low noise amplifiers (LNA), driver amplifiers, buffer amplifiers and RF transistors for voltage controlled oscillators
The DAC's architecture removes jitter noise and thus eliminates the need for expensive phase lock loops or voltage controlled oscillators
, further reducing overall system cost and making mainstream universal DVD players a reality.
Operating from 950 MHz to 2,050 MHz with a control voltage range from 0 V to 15 V, the CVCO55BES-0950-2050 voltage controlled oscillators
(VCO) from Crystek have a typical phase noise of -99 dBc/Hz at 10kHz offset.
Mini-Circuits offers a wide variety of voltage controlled oscillators
, including 5V units, that can be used for synthesizer applications.
The challenge is that I/O circuits that can manage and manipulate these data rates, with very low error rates, are extremely complex in that they generally involve components such as PLL's (phase lock loops) and VCO's (voltage controlled oscillators
Voltage Controlled Oscillators
(VCOs) are normally designed for operation in an ideal 50 ohm environment.