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(until 1935 and from 1958 to 1970, Lugansk), a city and center of Voroshilovgrad Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. It was renamed in honor of K. E. Voroshilov. Situated in the Donets Basin, at the confluence of the Lugan’ and Ol’khovaia rivers (Severskii Donets river basin), Voroshilovgrad is a major railroad and highway junction. It has an airport. The population totaled 382,000 in 1970 (72,000 in 1926 and 215,000 in 1939). The city arose in connection with the establishment of the first iron foundry in the south of Russia in 1795 on the Lugan’ River. From 1882 it was the administrative center of Slavianoserbskii District, Ekaterinoslav Province. By the beginning of the 20th century, Lugansk had 16 factories and plants and 39 small handicraft enterprises, employing a total of about 10,000 workers. Voroshilovgrad was one of the proletarian revolutionary centers in southern Russia. The first social democratic circles in the city were formed in 1900. The Lugansk Social Democratic Organization was founded in 1902. The proletariat of Lugansk took an active part in the Revolution of 1905-07. During the All-Russian Political Strike of 1905, a soviet of working people’s deputies was formed headed by K. E. Voroshilov. The Bolshevik newspaper Donetskii kolokol, organ of the Lugansk committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), was published from Oct. 17, 1906, through Jan. 19, 1907. In 1914-16 the workers took part in active antiwar actions under the leadership of the Bolsheviks. In July 1916 one of the largest political strikes in the Ukraine erupted in Lugansk, with more than 15,000 participants. After the February Revolution of 1917, a soviet of working people’s deputies was organized in Lugansk. In April 1917 the Lugansk organization of the RSDLP (Bolshevik) totaled more than 1,500 members and was one of the largest Bolshevik organizations. The newspaper Donetskii proletarii, organ of the Lugansk committee of the RSDLP (Bolshevik), began publishing on June 1 (14), 1917. During the period of the struggle against Kornilov, the RSDLP (Bolshevik) committee and the Bolshevik faction of the soviet established the Committee to Save the Revolution. The Red Guard took the factories and plants under its protection. Soviet power was established in the city on Oct. 25 (Nov. 7), 1917. During the Civil War the workers of Lugansk heroically fought against the German occupiers and the counter-revolutionary troops of Kaledin and Denikin. Lugansk produced a whole galaxy of Civil War heroes, among them K. E. Voroshilov, A. la. Parkhomenko, D. P. Rud’, and P. I. Tsupov. In 1924 the proletariat of Lugansk was awarded the Order of the Red Banner by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee in recognition of its combat services.
During the period of the struggle for the socialist industrialization of the country, the working people of Lugansk in 1929 came forward with the slogan “The Five-year Plan in Four Years!” Their initiative was picked up by the working people of the entire Soviet Union. During the Great Patriotic War, fascist German troops occupied Voroshilovgrad from July 17, 1942, through Feb. 14, 1943, and inflicted enormous damage on the city.
Voroshilovgrad was completely reconstructed in the postwar years. It is now one of the largest centers of heavy industry in the Ukraine and the USSR. Its leading industry is machine-building, employing two-thirds of the industrial labor force. The city’s enterprises include plants for the production of diesel locomotives (the largest enterprise in the USSR) and coal-mining machines, a pipe rolling mill, a casting and metalworking plant, and plants for the production of accumulators, internal combustion engine valves, and files. Also well developed are the food (meat combine, milk plant, and confectionery plant), light (a fine-cloth combine and footwear, knitted goods, and clothing factories), and furniture industries. There is also production of construction materials (bricks, tiles, cinder blocks, and reinforced-concrete structures).
Voroshilovgrad has machine-building, medical, pedagogical, and agricultural institutes, eight technicums (including a machine-building technicum, two construction technicums, a technicum dealing with the drainage and irrigation of land, and a rural construction technicum), and music, art, and cultural-education schools. It has two theaters (an oblast drama theater and a puppet theater), a philharmonic society, museums (regional studies, art), and a television center. The Voroshilovgrad Hydroelectric Power Plant is located nearby in the city of Schast’e. Voroshilovgrad has been awarded the Order of the October Revolution (1970).