initiative

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initiative,

the originating of a law or constitutional amendment by popular petition. It is intended to allow the electorate to initiate legislation independently of the legislature. This direct form of legislation, together with the referendumreferendum,
referral of proposed laws or constitutional amendments to the electorate for final approval. This direct form of legislation, along with the initiative, was known in Greece and other early democracies.
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, was known in Greece and other early democracies. It is practiced in Switzerland. In the United States the initiative was recognized as early as 1777 in the first constitution of Georgia. It was subsequently adopted by a number of states and may apply also on local and city government levels. There are two kinds of initiative, direct and indirect. In both kinds of initiative a certain number of signatures (usually from 5% to 15% of the electorate in the district concerned) must appear on the petition that proposes the constitutional amendment or legislation. In direct initiative the proposed law is voted on in the next election, or in a special election, after a petition with the required number of signatures has been filed with state or local officials. In indirect initiative the petition goes directly to the legislature and reaches the people only if the legislature fails to enact it into law. In the 1990s ballot initiatives became increasingly popular as various interest groups sought to win approval of measures they supported.

Bibliography

See P. Schrag, Paradise Lost (1999).

initiative

Government
a. the right or power to introduce legislation, etc., in a legislative body
b. the procedure by which citizens originate legislation, as in many American states and Switzerland
References in periodicals archive ?
CA 1979 Voter initiative 2 Seattle, WA 2003 Voter initiative 3 Oakland, CA 2004 Voter initiative 4 Santa Barbara, CA 2006 Voter initiative 5 Santa Cruz, CA 2006 Voter initiative 6 San Francisco, CA 2006 City council 7 Santa Monica, CA 2006 Voter initiative 8 West Hollywood, CA 2006 City council 9 Eureka Springs, AR 2006 Voter initiative 10 Missoula County, MT 2006 Voter initiative 11 Denver, CO 2007 Voter initiative 12 Fayetteville, AR 2008 Voter initiative 13 Hawaii County, HI 2008 Voter initiative 14 Hailey.
In failing to subject the Proposal 2 voter initiative to strict scrutiny, the Court permitted the populist mechanism (48) to replace the representative structure of republican government with its built in checks and balances.
Opponents contend that MMRSA is unconstitutional, since a voter initiative cannot be changed by legislative action unless it so provides.
PHOENIX (AP) -- College tuition in Arizona could increase by no more than the cost of living every year and corporations could see tax hikes under a proposed voter initiative.
In 1993, he mobilized a successful voter initiative to amend the city charter.
One of King's bills would require cities to get the attorney general's blessing before enacting or repealing any ordinance by voter initiative or referendum, the tool Denton activists used to push that city's fracking ban.
Efforts are at present in progress to back a voter initiative for the November ballot to expand eligibility for Medicaid in Montana to individuals earning up to 138 percent of the Federal Poverty level.
A voter initiative to enact a USD$15 minimum wage for thousands of workers in a Seattle suburb that houses the region's main airport won a narrow victory on Tuesday Nov.
Bronner's Magic Soaps, a natural brand of soap in North America and advocate for sustainable agriculture, has created a special label for its quart-size liquid soaps in support of GMO labeling and the Washington state voter initiative to label GM.0s, Yes on 1-522, otherwise known as "The Washington Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act." Natural product stores throughout all 50 states and Dr.
Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper has signed two bills and has passed Amendment 64, a voter initiative that legalized recreational use of the drug by residents above 21 years old, New York Daily News reports.
voter initiative models in the United States are all motivated by the