Then sing the mechanism in the vowel space
and apply a different pitch to each pulse of air while singing a five-note descending scale:
Figure 2 displays acoustic vowel space
values ([Hz.sup.2]) calculated from Ft and F2 formant frequencies of the vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ produced in labial, alveolar, and velar consonant contexts during OFF-stimulation and ON-stimulation.
Thus theoretically speaking "any vowel of any language must have its tongue-position either on the vowel limit itself or within the vowel space
" (Catford 1988 p.
Dieterman (2008) shows for the related Isthmus Mixe that vowels affected by secondary palatalization, the likely historic source for [ae, o, y] in Chuxnaban Mixe, do not impinge upon other phonemic vowel spaces
. Similarly, in Chuxnaban Mixe [ae, o, y] do not penetrate the vowel space
of other phonemic vowels, as shown in Figures 20 and 21.
It is useful for singers to be familiar with phonetics in general, and especially to know and understand the concept of the phonetic vowel space
Maddieson (1984) claims that the vast majority of world languages include three vowels that mark the extremes of the general vowel space
namely /iGu/ known as `point vowels'.
Lindau's view, in turn, is that "[l]ong and tense vowels are more peripheral in the auditory/acoustic vowel space
, while short and lax vowels are more central" (1978: 557), so that "[t]he difference between tense and lax vowels is best labeled by a feature Peripheral" (1978: 558) which is "best described with reference to the acoustic domain" (1978: 541), that is, as the "amount of centralization on [an] acoustic chart" (1978: 559).
Both front and back vowel spaces
are divided into two regions of phonological space: a peripheral region, near the outside of the vowel space
, and a nonperipheral one, closer to the center" (1994: 32).
These techniques result in a diminished vowel space
for singing as opposed to speech, and the article will address the effects that this has on the intelligibility of Finnish, Italian, and German.
This appraisal will include descriptions of the location of SMM vowels in the vowel space
along with an analysis of the degree to which they are reduced, and information regarding the extent to which the vowels may or may not be rounded.
It is possible to add diacritics to narrow down a certain quality as opposed to another represented with the same sound symbol, but there might still be quality differences between the two vowel qualities that can only be shown in a vowel space
or presented in detailed phonetic descriptions.