Vulgate


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Vulgate

(vŭl`gāt) [Lat. Vulgata editio=common edition], most ancient extant version of the whole Christian BibleBible
[Gr.,=the books], term used since the 4th cent. to denote the Christian Scriptures and later, by extension, those of various religious traditions. This article discusses the nature of religious scripture generally and the Christian Scriptures specifically, as well as the
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. Its name derives from a 13th-century reference to it as the "editio vulgata." The official Latin version of the Roman Catholic Church, it was prepared c.A.D. 383–A.D. 405 by St. JeromeJerome, Saint
, c.347–420?, Christian scholar, Father of the Church, Doctor of the Church. He was born in Stridon on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia of Christian parents (although he was not baptized until 366); his Roman name was Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus.
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 (c.342–420) at the request of Pope St. Damasus IDamasus I, Saint
, c.305–384, pope (366–84), a Spaniard; successor of Liberius. His election was opposed by the Arian Ursinus (antipope 366–67). The Roman emperor Valentinian I had Ursinus exiled and decreed that all religious cases must come before the pope.
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, his patron. The Vulgate was intended to replace the Old Latin version (the "Itala"), which was translated from the Greek. Jerome first revised the Old Latin Gospels, translating them in 383–84. Using the Septuagint and Origen's HexaplaHexapla
[Gr.,=sixfold], polyglot edition of the Hebrew Bible prepared by Origen (c.185–c.255). It was mainly in six columns—a Hebrew text (probably the Masoretic), a Greek transliteration of it, and four Greek versions (those of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, and
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, he set to work (385–89) on Job, the Psalms, Chronicles, the books attributed to Solomon, and chapters 40–55 of Isaiah. From 390–405, Jerome used the Hebrew Masoretic text, with the aid of several rabbis, for the basis of his translation. Regarding the Psalms, Jerome made three versions: the Roman Psalter, a mild revision of the Old Latin translation of the Septuagint, used in the Roman liturgy until c.1570; the Gallican Psalter, a revision of the Old Latin to parallel it with the Hebrew Masoretic text; and the later Hebrew Psalter, a new translation of the Hebrew Masoretic text. Texts of the Vulgate now contain the Gallican Psalter. As to the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, Jerome made hasty translations of Tobit, Judith, and the additions to Daniel and Esther; the rest he did not touch, hence the Vulgate includes Old Latin versions of them. From the 5th cent. the Vulgate was popular in the West; by the early Middle Ages it was used everywhere by the Latin churches of the West. All the early vernacular translations were from the Vulgate, which was the first Bible printed on Gutenberg's press. In 1546 the Council of Trent made the Vulgate the official version of the Catholic Church, and in 1592 the official text with no variants was promulgated by Clement VIII. All subsequent editions of the Vulgate published with the church's imprimatur represent this Clementine edition.

Bibliography

See J. N. D. Kelly, Jerome (1975); B. M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament (1977). See also the Benedictine and the Stuttgart editions.

Vulgate

a. (from the 13th century onwards) the fourth-century version of the Bible produced by Jerome, partly by translating the original languages, and partly by revising the earlier Latin text based on the Greek versions
b. (as modifier): the Vulgate version
References in periodicals archive ?
recordatus itaque Tobias sermonem angeli protulit de cassidile suo partem iecoris posuitque eam super carbones uiuos).(47) It is surprising that similar emendations (whether of cordis to iecoris in 6: 8 or of iecoris to cordis in 8: 2) were never apparently made in any other Vulgate manuscript.
They shared Erasmus' call for a return to the biblical sources in the original languages and the concomitant criticism of the Latin Vulgate. However, their precocious commitment to a scientific biblicism came with a high price in the aftermath of Trent, as they became increasingly suspect in the eyes of the Inquisition which dealt them so me terrible blows in the second half of the sixteenth century.
When Erasmus first published his Greek-to-Latin New Testament in 1516, he translated John 1 with the same phrasing as the Vulgate. (12) In 1522, Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples, a French humanist, also used verbum in his Commentarii Initiatorii In Quatuor Evangelia.
The "Vulgate" Latin Bible was declared to be the sole authentic text of the Bible by the Catholic council of Trent in 1546.
The second chapter, on the Vulgate Cycle, turns away from the subject of heroism somewhat, but this is indeed the point.
In the Catholic Church, there are two general forms of the Byzantine rite: the Ruthenian and Vulgate recensions.
Hopkins learnt some Hebrew and was proficient in Greek, but the King James Version and, later, the Latin Vulgate, always had priority.
Henry has the BibleReader app on his phone and uses it to read the King James and English Standard versions of the Bible, as well as the Latin Vulgate. He also has the Universalis app, with prayers and meditations for various times of the day and special religious seasons such as Advent, and he acknowledges that iPads, netbooks, and smartphones can be put to good spiritual use.
And therefore did they translate truly, according to their understanding of their art: and herein they followed the practice of William Tyndale in English, as also of the Latin Vulgate and the Greek Septuagint.
The author's notice in this regard is understandable, given that Tremillius's edition of the Old Testament established him as perhaps the foremost Hebraist of the sixteenth century, and that his Latin translation of the text was regarded for some time as the Protestant replacement for the Vulgate. Also clear is the reason for the paucity of biographical studies, however--that is, there just is not very much in the way of evidence for Tremillius's life.
And when his former mentor, Finnian of Moville, returned from Rome with a prized volume of the "Vulgate"--St Jerome's translation of the Bible--Columba was naturally anxious to make copies of that too.
My favorite is a side-by-side edition with both Dante's Italian from 1300 (then called "volgore," or vulgate) and today's Italian.