a practice in Russia from the 15th to the 17th century involving the transportation or theft of peasants from one feudal lord to another. According to the law codes of 1497 and 1550, peasants had the right to move from one pomeshchik (fief holder) to another on St. George’s Day. With the strengthening of serfdom and the intensification of the struggle between feudal lords for the labor force, the vykhod krest’ianskii (right of a peasant to leave his feudal lord) was limited by the vyvoz krest’ianskii. Major feudal lords resorted to the vyvoz krest’ianskii with particular frequency, since they had the means to entice and keep peasants. Forcible vyvoz krest’ianskii was accompanied by fierce battles between feudal lords and engendered lengthy legal disputes. Vyvoz krest’ianskii became consider-ably widespread in the 16th through the first half of the 17th century, and the government struggled against its violent aspects. The Law Code of 1649 established an unlimited period for finding fugitive peasants and peasants who had been enticed away or forcibly taken from one estate to another. During the zapovednye leta (years when peasants were forbidden to leave an estate) vykhod krest’ianskii and vyvoz krest’ianskii were prohibited.