Together, WCE comprises 0.35% (w/w) from dry plant and 3.22% from crude extract, respectively.
BABL/c mice (n = 4/group) were orally administrated with 100 mg/kg of WCE (11/2012) or combination (formula) containing the equivalent doses of wedelolactone, luteolin, and apigenin to those found in WCE.
WCE dissolved in phosphate buffered saline with 10% (v/v) DMSO and 5% (v/v) Tween-80 (vehicle) was given through gavage.
Quality control of WCE by analysis of active compounds and in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy
Because batch-to-batch variations in concentrations of active compounds may affect bioefficacy, we then characterized multiple batches of WCE using chemical and biological assays.
Tumor-bearing mice were orally administered with vehicle or either batch of WCE at a dosage of 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg.
Therefore, next, we investigated the bioavailability and metabolic rate of active compounds when they are administered as WCE in comparison to administration as a formula of highly purified compounds.
chinensis extract by flash LC, the qualified WCE, with regular amounts of three active components, exerted a consistent level of efficacy against PCa, as verified by PSA reporter assay and animal tumor study.
Based on these data, qualified WCE should contain >7.6% wedelolac tone and >42% of the three active compounds.
All the weed control treatments showed high weed control efficiency (>80% WCE), and a number of them provided excellent weed control (>95% WCE).
Weed control efficiency (WCE) was eventually translated into grain yield.
The economics of a weed control method is determined by its cost involvement and WCE. Similarly as Wibawa et al.