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see Work Projects AdministrationWork Projects Administration
(WPA), former U.S. government agency, established in 1935 by executive order of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as the Works Progress Administration; it was renamed the Work Projects Administration in 1939, when it was made part of the Federal
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(1935–43) provided work for unemployed construction and theater workers, artists, writers, and youth. [U.S. Hist.: NCE, 3006]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


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(2) See Windows Product Activation.

(1) (Wi-Fi Protected Access) A security protocol for wireless 802.11 networks from the Wi-Fi Alliance that was developed to provide a migration from WEP. The WPA logo certifies that devices are compliant with a subset of 802.11i, while WPA2 certifies full support.

Strong Security
WPA and WPA2 use a sophisticated key hierarchy that generates new encryption keys each time a mobile device establishes itself with an access point. Protocols including 802.1X, EAP and RADIUS are used for strong authentication. A RADIUS server provides automatic key generation and enterprise-wide authentication.

For home and small business users who do not have an authentication server, WPA can be used in preshared keys (PSK) mode, which requires that a shared secret key be manually entered into the access points and each user's computer. The shared secret is used to automatically generate the encryption keys.

WPA (2003) - 802.11i Subset for Migration Upgrades
WPA's Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses the same RC4 algorithm as WEP for encryption but adds sophisticated key management and effective message integrity checking. TKIP was designed to be efficient enough to work in older WEP devices by updating their firmware to WPA. See WEP.

WPA2 (2004) - Full 802.11i
In addition to TKIP, WPA2 supports the AES-CCMP encryption protocol. Based on the very secure AES national standard cipher combined with sophisticated cryptographic techniques, AES-CCMP was specifically designed for wireless networks. AES-CCMP requires more computing power than TKIP, and migration from WEP to WPA2 requires new hardware. Devices running in WPA2 mode are not backward compatible with WEP. See 802.11i, AES-CCMP, 802.1X, EAP and RADIUS.

WPA3 (2018) - More Secure
WPA3 provides an encrypted connection in public hotspots. It also makes it extremely difficult to hack the password of the user's connection because a brute force attack would require interaction with the user's Wi-Fi for each "guess" (see brute force attack). In addition, if the password is eventually deciphered, "forward security" prevents the decryption of any data previously captured.

802.11 Encryption Methods
As 802.11 security protocols evolved, the encryption methods became more robust.

The Wireless Security Primer
Jon Edney and William Arbaugh's "Real 802.11 Security" (Pearson Education, 2004) covers every technical detail you will ever need to know about 802.11i, WPA, WEP and other related protocols. It is also a great primer on wireless security in general.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Jules Angst from the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Zurich, came on the stage to receive the Jean Delay (the first President of the WPA) Award.
Node 4 was divided into child and terminal Nodes 11 and 12 in respect to WPA, with the AHY averages of 4.485 (S=1.891) kg and 9.029(S=2.014) kg, respectively.
I realize now, perhaps too late, that part of a new WPA's job is to acknowledge the grief that accompanies transition and to find ways to help the people in her program mourn the constellation of losses they might have experienced.
Felt recoil of the Howa was noticeably less than the WPA AR.
During the sixth and last round, the BIG rallied to take four games out of the eight but the damage had already been done with the final score being WPA with 31 wins and the BIG with 17 wins.
WPA estimates that participants will spend an average of six to eight months in the program, depending on each case.
BANGLADESH -- Bangladesh Association of Psychiatrists (BAP), an active WPA member society from South Asian Region, organised its 6th International conference on 16-18 October 2011 at Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The WPA consists of 135 member societies, spanning 117 different countries and representing more than 200,000 psychiatrists.
Mary sued Webber for alleged retaliatory termination in violation of the Whistleblower Protection Act (WPA).
While WEP is easily cracked, sometimes in seconds, WPA requires a large precomputed set of keys in the terabytes.