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see Work Projects AdministrationWork Projects Administration
(WPA), former U.S. government agency, established in 1935 by executive order of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as the Works Progress Administration; it was renamed the Work Projects Administration in 1939, when it was made part of the Federal
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(1935–43) provided work for unemployed construction and theater workers, artists, writers, and youth. [U.S. Hist.: NCE, 3006]



(2) See Windows Product Activation.

(1) (Wi-Fi Protected Access) A security protocol for wireless 802.11 networks from the Wi-Fi Alliance that was developed to provide a migration from WEP. The WPA logo certifies that devices are compliant with a subset of 802.11i, while WPA2 certifies full support.

Strong Security
WPA and WPA2 use a sophisticated key hierarchy that generates new encryption keys each time a mobile device establishes itself with an access point. Protocols including 802.1X, EAP and RADIUS are used for strong authentication. A RADIUS server provides automatic key generation and enterprise-wide authentication.

For home and small business users who do not have an authentication server, WPA can be used in preshared keys (PSK) mode, which requires that a shared secret key be manually entered into the access points and each user's computer. The shared secret is used to automatically generate the encryption keys.

WPA (2003) - 802.11i Subset for Migration Upgrades
WPA's Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses the same RC4 algorithm as WEP for encryption but adds sophisticated key management and effective message integrity checking. TKIP was designed to be efficient enough to work in older WEP devices by updating their firmware to WPA. See WEP.

WPA2 (2004) - Full 802.11i
In addition to TKIP, WPA2 supports the AES-CCMP encryption protocol. Based on the very secure AES national standard cipher combined with sophisticated cryptographic techniques, AES-CCMP was specifically designed for wireless networks. AES-CCMP requires more computing power than TKIP, and migration from WEP to WPA2 requires new hardware. Devices running in WPA2 mode are not backward compatible with WEP. See 802.11i, AES-CCMP, 802.1X, EAP and RADIUS.

WPA3 (2018) - More Secure
WPA3 provides an encrypted connection in public hotspots. It also makes it extremely difficult to hack the password of the user's connection because a brute force attack would require interaction with the user's Wi-Fi for each "guess" (see brute force attack). In addition, if the password is eventually deciphered, "forward security" prevents the decryption of any data previously captured.

802.11 Encryption Methods
As 802.11 security protocols evolved, the encryption methods became more robust.

The Wireless Security Primer
Jon Edney and William Arbaugh's "Real 802.11 Security" (Pearson Education, 2004, ISBN 0-321-13620-9) covers every technical detail you will ever need to know about 802.11i, WPA, WEP and other related protocols. It is also a great primer on wireless security in general.
References in periodicals archive ?
The evidence here leaves intact the basic summary of the FTC in its 50-Year Review of WPA activity:
The WPA narratives that are popular in our field typically involve a WPA sharing her experience of success and/or failure in the context of a particular college or university setting.
SEGURIDAD: Encriptacion WEP de 64 y 128bits, acceso inalambrico protegido WPA, filtrado de direcciones MAC, funcion Linksys Wireless Guard, opcion para deshabilitar la transmision de SSID
Again, the roughly seventy-five participants were asked to respond to the draft and, this time, also to consider how they would incorporate the new WPA Outcomes Statement into their writing programs.
In his opening speech, the WPA President (now, Immediate Past President), Dinesh Bhugra, emphasized the mission of the WPA and explained the importance of social justice for individuals with mental disorders through the symbol of a Blue Morpho butterfly He also stated that there would be 900 sessions, with more than 10000 participants.
Like Inman and Gindlesparger, my best job offer was a full-time WPA position (though mine was pre-tenure, tenure-track), and as I grappled with that decision, I received similar, discouraging advice.
In the fifth round the WPA continued their form and won another six out of eight games although some of the results were very close.
WEP Secure Pro - WEP Key Generator, WPA KeyGen & WiFi Random Password Generator Available For Downloading In The iTunes App Store:
By accommodating under the same roof all psychiatrists of different national and cultural origins, of different schools of thought, of various areas of interest and of diverging ideological proclivities, the WPA aspired to establish a worldwide front of professionals united in the pursuit of increased knowledge in the field and of greater capacity for the care of mental patients.
Launched yesterday, the WPA Cracker service bills itself as a useful tool for security auditors and penetration testers who want to know if they could break into certain types of WPA networks.
11g hasta 54 Mbps; AP, AP Client; WDS (bridge); seguridad WEP de 64/128 bits, WPA, WPA2 802.