Abnaki

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Abnaki

Abnaki or Abenaki (both: ăbnäˈkē), Native North Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). The name Abnaki was given to them by the French; properly it should be Wabanaki, a word that refers to morning and the east and may be interpreted as those “living at the sunrise.” The Abnaki lived mostly in what is now Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Abnaki legend has it that they came from the Southwest, but the exact time is unsure. The Abnaki resided in settled villages, often surrounded by palisades, and lived by growing corn, fishing, and hunting. They were early involved in the French fur trade. Their own name for their conical huts covered with bark or mats, wigwam, came to be generally used in English. After a series of bloody conflicts with British colonists in the late 17th and 18th cent. (see French and Indian Wars), the Abnaki and related tribes (the Malecite, the Mi'kmaq, the Passamaquoddy, the Pennacook, the Penobscot, and others) withdrew into Canada, where they received protection from the French. In 1990 there were some 1,500 Abnaki in the United States, mostly in N Vermont. About 1,000 live in Quebec and another group lives in Maine. There are also around 2,500 Passamaquoddy, mostly in Maine (see separate entries for other related tribes).
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References in periodicals archive ?
It is known that in the nineteenth century these Catholic missions were instrumental in the introduction of European style floral designs among the various Wabanaki groups, revolutionizing the repertoire of decorative designs both for indigenous use and also for the emerging market for Native beadwork souvenirs.
document the history of the Wabanaki people in the child welfare system;
Over the course of the book, Chmielewski uses a variety of terms to describe the history of English encounter with French and Wabanaki Catholicism.
These four bands are collectively known as the Wabanaki, or "People of the Dawn." Maine's history as Vacationland has come at the expense of Maine's Indigenous peoples and their land.
(4) Carolyn Morrison, Kathleen Fox, Terry Cross, and Roger Paul, "Permanency Through Wabanaki Eyes: A Narrative Perspective from 'The People Who Live Where the Sun Rises,'" Child Welfare 89, 1 (2010): 108.
The Wabanaki Nations of Maine and eastern Canada have been in contact with Europeans longer than other indigenous North Americans, with the exception of Norse-Inuit encounters and Spanish incursions into the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (Prins,1996; Fitzhugh & Ward, 2000).
Care is taken to offer perspectives of common people who take advantage of the dire events, as well as those who stand against the inhumanities; still, both the Germans and the Wabanaki Indians are portrayed simply as killers.
Chavaree, "Tribal Sovereignty," Wabanaki Legal News, Winter 1998, http://www.ptla.org/ wabanaki/sovereighn.htm.
Together they explored the artistic use of petroglyphs carved into stone throughout the Maritime provinces by the Wabanaki who were part of the ancient Eastern Woodland culture.
I thought of the Wabanaki women, waiting in their caves, their faces red in the fire glow; I thought of Grandmom in my dream, pointing up the mountain, and of me and Trev lifting our eyes to follow the line her arm painted against the sky.
Bilodeau weaves a fascinating tale of how Jesuit missionaries to the Wabanaki sought to control their subjects through internal policing, the use of the state, and, ultimately, deception.