Wagenburg


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Wagenburg

 

(from the German Wagen, “vehicle,” and Burg, “asylum” or “shelter”), a fortification constructed with carts from a military convoy, used in ancient times and in the Middle Ages in order to repulse enemy attacks.

In ancient times, the Wagenburg was often used by the Gauls, Germans, Huns, and others. The Wagenburg was further developed during the Middle Ages when troops on campaign were accompanied by numerous carts with supplies and weapons. The term Wagenburg came to be applied to moving as well as stationary arrangements of carts. It was widely employed by the Crusaders, the Swiss, and especially the Hussites, who repeatedly repulsed attacks by mounted knights with the aid of the Wagenburg. When under the threat of enemy attack, the carriages were arranged in the form of a carré (square), circle, or semicircle in the center of which were the people and horses. When possible, the Wagenburg was surrounded by a moat and other obstacles. For the defense of the Wagenburg infantry was deployed within; artillery, at the corners; and cavalry, on the outside. The Wagenburg, called guliaigorod, was used in Russia from the beginning of the 16th century. With the development of firearms (especially of artillery) the Wagenburg lost its importance.

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The firepower of the Wagenburg decimated attackers, stopped German cavalry, and gave the infantry a safe place to reload their arquebuses.
49) In battles the strel'tsy relied on a Hungarian-style Wagenburg, the guliai gorod or prefabricated "moving fort," and rarely engaged in pitched battles.
Se describe la geologia del Gipskeuper en Baden-Wurttemberg (Alemania) y la fenomenologia de las expansiones en el tunel Wagenburg Norte.
The geology of the Gipskeuper in Baden-Wurttemberg (Germany) and the phenomenology of expansions in Wagenburg North tunnel are described.
Later, precise information on swelling-time relationships came from long-term measurements of heaves and swelling pressures carried out in the Wagenburg Tunnel System during different periods since 1943 until 1992 (Krause & Wurm, 1975; Krause, 1976; Wichter, 1985; Nagel, 1986; Paul & Wichter, 1996; Paul & Walter, 2004), in the test gallery of Freudenstein tunnel between 1987 and 1998 (Kirschke, 1987; Fecker, 1992; Wittke-Gattermann, 1998; Amstad & Kovari, 2001), in the test zone of Heslach II tunnel between 1987 and 1988 (Wittke, 2000) and in their operative tube between 1991 and 2003 (Wittke, 2006).
With regard to laboratory tests, long-term expansions without signs of attenuation can be observed in both free swelling tests and swelling pressure tests on undisturbed samples recovered from the Gipskeuper in Wagenburg tunnel (Henke, 1976) and in the test gallery of Freudenstein tunnel (Kirschke, 1987; Kirschke et.
This distinction is illustrated in figure 6 using the case of Wagenburg North tunnel as reference.
The Wagenburg tunnel connects the centre with the eastern part of Stuttgart.
Weathering and gypsum growth induced swelling certainly affected the foundation material in Wagenburg north tunnel, as illustrated in figure 10.
Observations by Krause (1976) in Wagenburg North tunnel reveal that transformation of anhydrite into gypsum is not a reasonable explanation for long-term expansive phenomena that affected the foundation material.
Perhaps the most remarkable figure in Czech history; a brave and valiant warrior, he was a gifted strategist and an innovative and resourceful tactician; the core of the military system he created for the Taborites was the Wagenburg, a series of stout wooden wagons with crossbows or light cannon mounted in them, chained together, with pikemen, handgunners, and crossbowmen stationed in the gaps, creating an unusually strong position, one which repeatedly frustrated Sigismund's knights; of necessity the system was tactically defensive, although success was usually crowned with a welltimed counterattack, and much of Ziska's brilliant reputation rested on his marriage of the tactical defense with the strategic offense.
Especially in the latter hall of the 17th century, the effectiveness of the wagenburg dropped steeply as Muscovy's foes developed strategies for confronting it, yet the Muscovites continued to rely on it.