Wagram


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Wagram

(vä`gräm) or

Deutsch-Wagram

(doich–), town, Lower Austria prov., NE Austria, in the Marchfeld, near Vienna. On July 5–6, 1809, Napoleon I gained one of his most brilliant victories there. Despite their heroic conduct and the able leadership of Archduke Charles, the Austrians were forced to fall back by French field artillery fire. Napoleon's "grand battery" of 100 guns was the largest concentration of artillery that had until then been used for massed fire. More than 70,000 casualties resulted from the battle. Six days later, Austria was forced to conclude an armistice.

Wagram

 

a town in Austria, 16 km northeast of Vienna, in the area of which on July 5-6, 1809, during the Austro-French War of 1809, the decisive battle between the French Army of Napoleon I and the Austrian Army of the Archduke Charles took place.

After the unsuccessful battle at Aspern (8 km east of Vienna), Napoleon I withdrew his troops to Lobau Island (8-11 km southeast of Vienna) and began to prepare to inflict a final defeat on the Austrians. Having carefully prepared the crossing, on the evening of July 4, Napoleon began the fording of the Danube with a large force (170,000 men and 584 cannon) from Lobau Island to the left bank. The Austrian troops (110,000 men and 452 cannon) occupied the main position on the heights beyond the Russbach River. On July 5 persistent attacks by the French troops were repelled. Both sides lost approximately 8,000 men. On July 6 the French troops, having repulsed scattered attacks by the Austrians, took the offensive. Having achieved success on the right flank and having carried out a heavy preparatory artillery assault, Napoleon dealt a decisive battering blow with Macdonald’s column (approximately 45,000 men and 104 cannon) west of Aderkel, at the center of the enemy’s forces. Unable to reinforce his troops, Charles gave the order to retreat. Although the battle was won by Napoleon I, the pursuit of the retreating Austrians was not organized. The losses on both sides were approximately equal (about 25,000 men on each side). A truce was concluded on July 12, and the Treaty of Schönbrunn of 1809 was concluded on July 14. The battle is noteworthy for the execution of the skillful crossing of the Danube by large French forces, the massing of artillery, and the use of a deep battering combat formation.

Wagram

a village in NE Austria: scene of the defeat of the Austrians by Napoleon in 1809
References in periodicals archive ?
Daumesnil's good fortune finally tan out at Wagram in 1809.
Jean Victor Moreau's army at Hohenlinden, but his army was routed with heavy casualties (December 3, 1800); replaced by his elder brother Charles, he held no further command until 1809, when he was given command of the Austrian army in Italy; repulsed Eugene de Beauharnais' impetuous attack at Sacile (April 16, 1809) in the first major battle of the war; recalled to Austria when Napoleon advanced down the Danube, he turned to halt Eugene's pursuit at the Raab, but was defeated (June 14); failed to join forces with Charles's army at Wagram (July 5-6); retired from active military service (1815); chosen regent of Austria by the National Assembly during the Revolution of 1848; died in 1859.
Principal battles: Rivoli (1797), the Pyramids (1798), Austerlitz (Slavkov) (1805); Prenzlau, Stettin (Szczecin) (1806); Eylau (Bagrationovsk) (1807); Medina de Rioseca (1808); Medellin (near Valdivia), Aspern-Essling, Raab (Gyor), Wagram (1809).
Principal battles: Jemappes (1792); Tourcoing, Hondschoote (1793); Modena, the Trebbia (1799); the Piave, Wagram (1809); Riga (1812); Lutzen, Bautzen, the Katzbach (Kocaba), Leipzig, Hanau (1813).
Principal battles: Lodi, Castiglione delle Stiviere (1796); the Pyramids (1798); Marengo (near Alessandria) (1800); Ragusa (Dubrovnik) (1806); Wagram (1809); Salamanca (1812); Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, Leipzig, Hanau (1813); campaign of France (1814).
Principal battles: Montenotte (near Dego), Dego, Lodi, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Bassano (Bassano del Grappo) (1796); Rivoli (1797); Zurich (1799); siege of Genoa (1800); Aspern-Essling and Wagram (1809); Bussaco (near Mealhada) (1809); Lines of Torres Vedras (1810-1811).
Principal battles: Kaiserslautern (1794); Ingolstadt (1796); Zurich (1799); Genoa (Genova) (1800); Ulm, Hollabrunn, Austerlitz (Slavkov) (1805); Ostrolenka (Ostroleka), Danzig (Gdansk), Friedland (Pravdinsk) (1807); Aspern-Essling, Wagram (1809); Polotsk, the Berezina (1812); Bautzen, Grossbeeren, Leipzing (1813); Brienne (Brienne-de-Chateau), La Rothiere (near Brienne), Arcis (1814).
Principal battles: Fleurus (1794), Aspern-Essling, Wagram (1809); Leipzig (1813); Custozza (near Verona) (1848); Novara (1849).
Principal battles: Hondschoote (1793); Stockach, Bergen, Alkmaar (1799); Austerlitz (Slavkov) (1805); siege of Magdeburg (1806); Wagram (1809); Dresden, Kulm (Chelmno) (1813); Ligny, Wavre (1815).
Principal battles: Hohenlinden (near Munich) (1800); Wagram (1809); Hanau (1813); La Rothiere (near Brienne), Bar-sur-Aube, Arcis (1814).
Principal battles: Marengo (near Alessandria) (1800), the Raab, Wagram (1809), Borodino, Maloyaroslavets (near Kaluga) (1812), Lutzen, Mockern (1813).
Principal battles: Marengo (near Alessandria), the Mincio (1800); Abensberg-Eggmuhl, Aspern-Essling, Wagram (1809); the Mincio (1814).