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(wähä`bē), reform movement in IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
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, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.1703–1791), who was influenced by Ibn TaymiyyaIbn Taymiyya, Taqiyy ad-Din Ahmad
, 1263–1328, Muslim theologian and jurist. He lived in Damascus after the collapse of the central caliphate to the Mongol invasion from the East, and during the continuous threat of Christendom from the North and West.
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 and taught that all accretions to Islam after the 3d cent. of the Muslim era—i.e., after c.950—were spurious and must be expunged. This view, involving essentially a purification of the Sunni sect, regarded the veneration of saints, ostentation in worship, and luxurious living as the chief evils. Accordingly, Wahhabi mosques are simple and without minarets, and the adherents dress plainly and do not smoke tobacco or hashish.

Driven from Medina for his preaching, the founder of the Wahhabi sect went into the NE Nejd and converted the Saud tribe. The Saudi sheik, convinced that it was his religious mission to wage holy war (jihad) against all other forms of Islam, began the conquest of his neighbors in c.1763. By 1811 the Wahhabis ruled all Arabia, except Yemen, from their capital at Riyadh. The Ottoman sultan, nominally suzerain over Arabia, had vainly sent out expeditions to crush them. Only when the sultan called on Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali,
1769?–1849, pasha of Egypt after 1805. He was a common soldier who rose to leadership by his military skill and political acumen. In 1799 he commanded a Turkish army in an unsuccessful attempt to drive Napoleon from Egypt.
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 of Egypt for aid did he meet success; by 1818 the Wahhabis were driven into the desert.

In the Nejd the Wahhabis collected their power again and from 1821 to 1833 gained control over the Persian Gulf coast of Arabia. The domain thereafter steadily weakened; Riyadh was lost in 1884, and in 1889 the Saud family fled for refuge into the neighboring state of Kuwait. The Wahhabi movement was to enjoy its third triumph when Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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 advanced from his capture of Riyadh in 1902 to the reconstitution in 1932 of nearly all his ancestral domain under the name Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2015 est. pop. 27,752,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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, where it remains dominant. Wahhabism served as an inspiration to other Islamic reform movements from India and Sumatra to North Africa and Sudan, and during the 20th cent. has influenced the Taliban of Aghanistan and Islamist movements elsewhere.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Answering a question about the Saudi-funded spread of Wahabism that some have accused of being a source of global terrorism, he said successive Saudi governments lost track of the effort.
New Delhi [India], Sept.24 ( ANI ): Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on Sunday stated that while elements like the ISIS are not too prominent in India as compared to other countries, a portion of their ideology is now converging with certain extreme-left ideas, and also cautioned that Sufism is being replaced by 'Wahabism' in the Kashmir Valley.
He claimed that untill Wahabism will exist in the word, terrorism cannot be eradicated.
Saudi Arabia, the champion of Wahabism in Islam, does not wish to see Bashar Assad any longer in power.
Two further events in 1979 (the Iranian revolution and the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan) entrenched the rise of political Islam under two banners--Saudi Arab's Sunni brand of Wahabism which inspired the Afghan Mujahidin, and Iran's own home-grown Shia variant, which inspired its revolution.
The intransigence of the parties in the Israel-Palestinian situation, the Saudi behaviour towards its own citizens and its succour of Wahabism, and the partisan fury of all parties in Syria are only a few of the developments which are causing many outsiders increasingly to wish to wash their hands of the whole region.
Saudi-led Storm of Firmness only benefited Israel and America while Wahabism continues to threaten the people in the Persian Gulf, he retorted.
In fact, Saudi Arabia has set up mosques and supported religious groups that spread Wahabism - a conservative form of Sunni Islam that is practiced in Saudi Arabia.
The story also carried pro vocative subheads, including; "Signs of collapse of Saudi Arabia," "Death of Abdullah and $200 oil," "Wahabism equals terrorism," and "Crisis of succession to Abdullah."
Smith categorizes Islamic movements into puritan forms of Islam such as Wahabism, liberal Islam, modernist Islam (with Amir Ali as one of its proponents), Salafi Islam and progressive Islam.