Wahhabi

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Wahhabi

or

Wahabi

(wähä`bē), reform movement in IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
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, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.1703–1791), who was influenced by Ibn TaymiyyaIbn Taymiyya, Taqiyy ad-Din Ahmad
, 1263–1328, Muslim theologian and jurist. He lived in Damascus after the collapse of the central caliphate to the Mongol invasion from the East, and during the continuous threat of Christendom from the North and West.
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 and taught that all accretions to Islam after the 3d cent. of the Muslim era—i.e., after c.950—were spurious and must be expunged. This view, involving essentially a purification of the Sunni sect, regarded the veneration of saints, ostentation in worship, and luxurious living as the chief evils. Accordingly, Wahhabi mosques are simple and without minarets, and the adherents dress plainly and do not smoke tobacco or hashish.

Driven from Medina for his preaching, the founder of the Wahhabi sect went into the NE Nejd and converted the Saud tribe. The Saudi sheik, convinced that it was his religious mission to wage holy war (jihad) against all other forms of Islam, began the conquest of his neighbors in c.1763. By 1811 the Wahhabis ruled all Arabia, except Yemen, from their capital at Riyadh. The Ottoman sultan, nominally suzerain over Arabia, had vainly sent out expeditions to crush them. Only when the sultan called on Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali,
1769?–1849, pasha of Egypt after 1805. He was a common soldier who rose to leadership by his military skill and political acumen. In 1799 he commanded a Turkish army in an unsuccessful attempt to drive Napoleon from Egypt.
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 of Egypt for aid did he meet success; by 1818 the Wahhabis were driven into the desert.

In the Nejd the Wahhabis collected their power again and from 1821 to 1833 gained control over the Persian Gulf coast of Arabia. The domain thereafter steadily weakened; Riyadh was lost in 1884, and in 1889 the Saud family fled for refuge into the neighboring state of Kuwait. The Wahhabi movement was to enjoy its third triumph when Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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 advanced from his capture of Riyadh in 1902 to the reconstitution in 1932 of nearly all his ancestral domain under the name Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2015 est. pop. 27,752,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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, where it remains dominant. Wahhabism served as an inspiration to other Islamic reform movements from India and Sumatra to North Africa and Sudan, and during the 20th cent. has influenced the Taliban of Aghanistan and Islamist movements elsewhere.

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References in periodicals archive ?
"Wahhabism was the ideological bed for Takfiri terrorism and the ISIL was created based on Wahhabism, a plot hatched by certain world powers and the role played by a number of ignorant and contending regional states," Shamkhani said in a meeting with his Uzbek counterpart Viktor Makhmudov in Tehran.
Perhaps most damningly of all, in his recent interview with The Atlantic, the Prince effectively denied that Wahhabism was the dominant religious force in the kingdom, and that the ideology played a significant role in the Saudi national character.
While Mohammed bin Salman declared that his government is no more providing funds for the spread of Wahhabism, he did admit that private Saudi charities were still patronising madressahs and mosques across the world.
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Wahhabism is a puritanical Islamic movement from the 1700s - strong in Saudi Arabia - dreamed up by fanatic Muhammad Ibn Abd'al Wahhab.
11, 2001, militant Wahhabism has undergone a series of face-lifts, but underneath, the ideology remains the same--whether it's the Taliban, the various incarnations of Al Qaeda or the so-called Islamic State, which is neither Islamic nor a state.
Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammed Javad Zarif wrote a strange article in the New York Times calling for unity against "Wahhabism." Saudi Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir replied in an article at The Wall Street Journal stating the crimes of the Iranian Khomeini regime.
11, 2001, militant Wahhabism has undergone a series of face-lifts, but underneath, the ideology remains the same -- whether it's the Taliban , the various incarnations of Al Qaeda or the so-called Islamic State, which is neither Islamic nor a state.
The Salafi movement is often described as being synonymous with Wahhabism, but Salafists consider the term "Wahhabi" derogatory.
IT is Wahhabism, which is named after an 18th-century preacher and scholar, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhabb, that is the driver for the terrorism and mayhem happening around the world.
Rather , it will be determined by how the kingdom's rulers restructure their Faustian bargain with Wahhabism, the puritan interpretative paradigm of Islam in which the Al Saud family cloaks itself but which looms ever more as a prime obstacle to resolving their problems.