a forest consisting predominantly of English walnuts (Juglans regia) and, sometimes, Manchurian walnuts (J. manshurica). There are forests of English walnut in the mountains of Middle Asia at elevations ranging from roughly 1,000 to 2,300 m. The largest walnut forests are concentrated on the slopes of the Chatkal and Fergana ranges. Walnut forests are formed by pure or mixed plantings and have black-brown forest soils. The Turkestan maple (Acer turkestanicum) and western Tien-Shan species of apple grow in mixed walnut forests; the brush consists of the cherry plum Prunus divaricata, honeysuckle, Crataegus turkestanica, spindle tree, and cotoneaster. Some typical plants of broad-leaved forests, such as false brome grass (Brachypodium sylvaticum) and Bromus benekenii are encountered in the walnut forests of Middle Asia. The mixed walnut forests of the Far East include Manchurian walnuts. Walnut forests are a remnant of ancient subtropical forests of Middle Asia. They are important in soil protection and water conservation and yield valuable food products.
REFERENCESLavrenko, E. M., and S. la. Sokolov. “Rastitel’nost’ plodovykh lesov i prilegaiushchikh raionov iuzhnoi Kirgizii.” In Plodovye lesa iuzhnoi Kirgizii i ikh ispol’zovanie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949.
Korovin, E. P. Rastitel’nost’Srednei Azii i Iuzhnogo Kazakhstana, 2nd ed., books 1–2. Tashkent, 1961–62.