Walter Brattain

Brattain, Walter

 

Born Feb. 10, 1902, in Hsiamen, China. American physicist.

Brattain studied at universities in Walla Walla, Wash., and in Arizona and Minnesota. A teacher at various universities in the USA, he has been a professor at a college in Walla Walla since 1963. Brattain has studied the surface properties of semiconductors (the determination of the rate of recombination and distribution of potential on the surface of a semiconductor). A number of his works have been devoted to the study of the semiconductor properties of copper oxide, the study of the optical properties of germanium films, and the measurement of conductivity under the action of irradiation by α-particles. He won the Nobel Prize in 1956 (with J. Bardeen and W. Shockley) for creating semiconductor transistors and studying the physical principles of their operation.

WORKS

“The Transistor: A Semiconductor Triode. Nature of the Forward Current in Germanium Point Contacts.” The Physical Review, 1948, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 230-31. (With J. Bardeen.)
“Physical Principles Involved in Transistor Action.” The Physical Review, 1949, vol. 75, no. 8, pp. 1208-25. (With J. Bardeen.)
References in periodicals archive ?
With the simple addition of the tiny transistor (invented by William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain) and the introduction of digital communication, the world has been thrust over the cliff into humankind's fourth revolution: information technology (IT).
Walter Brattain earned a physics degree at the UO in 1926 and shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with two others in 1956 for advances in transistors and semiconductors.
For the invention of which electronic device did John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain receive the 1956 Nobel prize for physics?
This work was recognized with the 1956 Physics Nobel Prize awarded jointly to William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect." Building on early work on the effect of electric fields on metal semiconductor junctions, the interdisciplinary Bell Labs team built a working bipolar-contact transistor and clearly demonstrated (discovered) the transistor effect.
After a year of trying all sorts of materials, and working independently under Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the first transistor.
In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain built the first functioning point contact transistor at Bell Laboratories, It was nearly classified as a military secret, but Bell Labs publicly announced the device in the following year.
The most prominent figures profiled are Bill Shockley, who led the group that included Walter Brattain and John Bardeen that developed the solid state transistor; Claude Shannon, widely known as the Father of information theory; communications satellite pioneer John Pierce; and physicists-turned-architects of Bell Laboratories, Frank Jewett and Mervin Kelly.
Kilby and most of his peers in electronics are gone: Paul Eisler, Albert Hanson, Edwin Armstrong, William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The first five or six decades of the last century boasted a disproportionate number of inventions that shook the earth.
According to this theory, once John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley gave us a shove with their discovery of the transistor, we just followed Gordon Moore's famous law down the cost curve, like a skier going down a jump ramp.
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, and many other Bell Labs scientists resumed full-time semiconductor research.
WHEN John Bardeen and Walter Brattain produced their first transistor in December 1947, it was almost certainly a light emitter but at such a low level as to be undetectable.