Wang An-shih


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Wang An-shih

(wäng än-shûr), 1021–86, Chinese Sung dynasty statesman. As a chief councilor (1069–74, 1075–76) he directed sweeping administrative and fiscal reforms that drew strong conservative opposition. His aim was to strengthen the central government, but the poor also benefited from reforms such as the graduated land tax, cheap government credit, and reduction of the forced labor levy. Wang revived government price and commodity controls, local police administration, and the militia system. Followers of Wang competed with conservative bureaucratic opponents for high office after his resignation.

Wang An-Shih

 

Wang Chieh-fu. Born 1021; died 1086. Chinese statesman, reformer, scholar, and writer.

Wang An-shih was a district government clerk. In 1069 he was court counselor, and from 1070 to 1074 and 1075-76 he was prime minister. Beginning in 1069 he proposed and partly effected several reforms: for example, he organized the tax system by introducing a new cadastre, tried to regularize market prices, introduced a system of state credit extension for peasants, introduced exemption from state conscription, and replaced mercenary troops with an army of drafted recruits. These reforms were carried out chiefly in the interest of petty and middle landowners, but they also benefited the peasants. As a result of the opposition of the big landowners and usurers, most of the reforms were abolished in 1085.

Wang An-shih wrote works on the theory and history of Chinese literature, commentaries on several canonical books, and several poems and prose pieces. He was a master of rhythmical prose. His letters, pamphlets, and essays became standard reading. As a philosopher, he was a materialist, but he was not free of mechanism.

WORKS

In Russian translation:
In the book Antologiia kitaiskoi poezii, vol. 3. Moscow, 1957.
Kitaiskaia klassiehe skaia proza, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1959.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V.l. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 12. Page 253. (Footnote.)
Ivanov, A. I. Van An’-shi i ego reformy XI v. St. Petersburg, 1909.
Shtein, V. M. “Kitai v X i XI vv.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1945, no. 3.
Ch’i Hsia. Wang An-shih Peinfa. Shanghai, 1959. (The reforms of Wang An-shih.)
Liu, James T. C. Reform in Sung China: Wang An-shih (1021-1086) and His New Policies. Cambridge, Mass., 1959.

G. IA. SMOLIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Ferguson, "Wang An-shih," in John Meskill, ed., Wang An-Shih: Practical Reformer?
Liu, "Reappraisal of Wang An-Shih." In Meskill, ed., Wang An-Shih, p.
Therefore the wise rulers of ancient times did not abandon virtue because the country was weak, nor did they permit social customs to suffer because the country was poor." Su Shi, "Memorial to Emperor Shen-tsung to the New Laws of Wang An-shih," in Meskill, ed., Wang An-Shih, 24.
The tone of self-consolation suggests that the poem may have been written after Wang An-shih lost a game.
The political and economic reforms Wang An-shih had proposed brought severe criticism from conservative courtiers, which twice led to his resigning as chief minister.
Wang An-shih's use of wei-ch'i to embody philosophical ideas was responded to by his contemporaries.
It is highly probable that the imperial edict invoked in this subsection was promulgated by Emperor Shen-tsung in the early years of the Wang An-shih reform, in order to suppress opposition to the New Policies.