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the winding of warp threads (ends) from single-thread holders (bobbins or spools) onto multithread holders (warping beams or reels). The initial stage in producing woven material, warping provides even and parallel distribution of up to 1,000 ends over the entire width of the warping beam. It is performed by warpers, the principal working parts of which are a frame (creel), which holds the bobbins or spools, an expansion comb, which distributes the ends over the width of the warp, and a measuring roller, which registers the length of the ends.

Three types of warping are distinguished, depending on the type of yarn and technology adopted: beam, silk-system, and section warping. In all warping procedures the total number of warp ends in the fabric is divided into several parts that are as identical as possible. In beam warping, the ends of each part are wound onto separate warping beams. Several beams are combined to produce a warp with a total number of ends equal to the number of ends in the fabric. The ends from all the beams are connected and wound onto another warp beam for weaving during the next production operation—sizing. This is the most productive method of warping, with speeds up to 18 m/sec. It is widely used in the production of cotton and linen cloth.

In silk-system warping, the warp ends are wound onto the reel of the warper in separate successive bands. After bands with a total number of threads equal to the number of threads in the fabric have been wound onto the reel, all the bands are rewound simultaneously onto a warp beam. With speeds ranging to 15 m/sec, this method is not as productive as beam warping. However, it produces a ready-to-use warp beam for weaving and reduces the amount of wasted material. It is used most widely to produce fabrics of wool and synthetic and natural silk, as well as colored warps with intricate designs.

In section warping, which is seldom used, individual warp bands are wound onto narrow warping beams (sections). They are then simultaneously rewound onto a common beam or are used directly in weaving or knitting.



The deviation of a surface from its original or intended shape, as a concrete slab or wall surface; esp. caused by moisture and temperature differentials.