rationing

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rationing,

allotment of scarce supplies, usually by governmental decree, to provide equitable distribution. It may be employed also to conserve economic resources and to reinforce price and production controls. Originally used in community emergencies and in distributing supplies to sailors, rationing was first organized on a national scale in Great Britain during World War I, and during World War II it spread to most of the world. The methods used have varied according to the degree of rationing needed and to the products. Rationing methods include specific rationing, or allotment in terms of physical units; point rationing, the allotment of points (ration stamps) to be apportioned by the user among commodities of a given group; and value rationing, allotment in terms of expenditure. Rations may be allotted to individuals, institutions, and industrial users, or to communities, as in rural areas of undeveloped countries. In universal rationing, ration currency is issued to everyone in equal amounts; in differential rationing, the allocation is based on need and may vary according to occupation, age, sex, or health. In the so-called flow-back system, ration currency, usually distributed by the government to the consumer, moves upward from the consumer level to the manufacturer or processor as the product moves down. During World War II, rationing in the United States was administered by the Office of Price AdministrationOffice of Price Administration
(OPA), U.S. federal agency in World War II, established to prevent wartime inflation. The OPA issued (Apr., 1942) a general maximum-price regulation that made prices charged in Mar., 1942, the ceiling prices for most commodities.
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Bibliography

See W. A. Nielander, Wartime Food Rationing in the United States (1947).

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References in periodicals archive ?
On the Saturday morning meetings generally, see the account of wartime rationing in George Yaney, The World of the Manager.
AS RADIO and TV are increasingly over-run by inexperienced, aggressive sharp-suited whipper-snappers, it's great to see that the top Sony wireless entertainment award has gone to two old dears with a combined age of 176, whose weekly Radio Humberside show has an audience of 20,000 to hear them natter on about chicken dinners and wartime rationing.
When a freighter runs aground in fog on the closeknit Hebridean island of Todday, the locals are delighted to learn the boat is laden with cases of whisky, supplies of which have been depleted on the island following wartime rationing.
Users of Timken Silent Automatic Oil Heating greatly appreciate its economical use of oil under wartime rationing regulations.
Food and fuel bills have rocketed and a generation which was born into the shortages and wartime rationing are having to tighten their belts again at the other end of their lives.
The couple were married on July 19, 1947 in one of the first white weddings Middlesbrough had seen for years because of wartime rationing.
Sixty years ago, however, it would have seriously damaged the reputation of Bevan if it had emerged that while his constituents were having to make do with one lamb chop a week, he was regularly driving a coach and horses through the severe restrictions imposed by wartime rationing.
Wartime rationing had been introduced to ensure everyone got their fair share and the government encouraged everyone to grow their own vegetables.
According to records of wartime rationing, there were 100,000 vegetarians registered in 1945.
But Joan loved her time up there, making friends with a local farming family, who used to give her eggs, a precious commodity during wartime rationing, and returned to visit them for many years.
Wartime rationing, coupons and identity cards bring home the challenging realities of life on the Home Front, highlighting the important role of the local shop in the community..
LOCK-UP: OJ Simpson in prison in 1995 CUPPA CHEER: A family taking tea at the end of wartime rationing in 1952

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