the expenditure of water that has been supplied to satisfy the various needs of the population, industry, and so on. Two main categories of water consumption are distinguished: (1) household-drinking and communal water consumption—water consumption related to the everyday needs of the people (drinking, preparation of food, cleaning of dwellings, and so on) and to the provision of public services and amenities in inhabited areas (watering the streets, plants, and so on); and (2) industrial or technical water consumption—water consumption for technological goals of industry, for power engineering, for transportation (steam generation, cooling, washing of products, or hydraulic transportation), or for fire fighting. The amount of water allocated for the people’s needs depends largely on the plumbing facilities in the dwelling (sewerage, baths, showers, and gas and hot water supply systems). An indicator of the amount of water used by individuals is the specific water consumption—that is, the average amount of water consumed per day per resident. The measurements and analysis of the actual specific consumptions in inhabited localities are the basis for setting water consumption standards—that is, the recommended values for specific consumption that are to be taken into consideration in planning new water-supply lines or rebuilding existing lines.
REFERENCESAbramov, N. N. Vodosnabzhenie. Moscow, 1967.
Stroitel’nye normy i pravila, part 2, section G, ch. 3:“Vodosnabzhenie: Normy proektirovaniia.” Moscow, 1963.