Wechsler, Wechsler Memory Scale
: Administration and Scoring Manual, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 3rd edition, 1997.
In the first clinical trial, patients who received the nutrients showed a statistically significant level of improvement compared to control subjects: 40% of the treated patients improved performance in a test of verbal memory (memory for words, as opposed to memory of locations or experiences) known as the Wechsler Memory Scale
, while 24% of patients who received the control drink improved their performance.
Wechsler Memory Scale
(Wechsler, 1997), Benton Visual Retention Test (Sivan, 1992), and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (Benton & Hamsher, 1976) were administered to determine the memory deficits, visual spatial and visuo-motor abilities, and verbal memory of participant.
Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; CVLT-II = California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition; LSCVAMC = Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center; MMPI-II = Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; OIF/ OEF = Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom; OR = odds ratio; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; SE = standard error of the mean; TBI = traumatic brain injury; VA = Department of Veterans Affairs; VHA = Veterans Health Administration; WAIS-III = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition; WMS-III = Wechsler Memory Scale
, Third Edition.
Orlando Bureau Adults With Sickle Cell Disease More Likely to Have Cognitive Impairment Sickle cell disease Control (n = 138) (n = 37) Wechsler Adult Intelligence 32% 26% Scale score <86 Wechsler Memory Scale
score <86 15% 16% Note: Based on a study of adults aged 21-29 years.
* immediate logical (verbal) memory measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale
and verbal attention measured by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (Brooks et al., 1987;
Further studies should focus on effect of abacus training on variables such as memory quotient (using Wechsler Memory Scale
), attention span, and other aspects of cognition.
DST: Digit Span Test; VMPT: Verbal Memory Processing Test; WMS_LM: Wechsler Memory Scale
story subtest; WMS_Visual: Wechsler Memory Scale
visual memory subtest; BNT: Boston Naming Test; BFR: Benton Facial Recognition Test; BLOT: Benton Line Orientation Test; WCST: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; LTM: Long-term memory; STM: Short-term memory; MLS: Maximum learning score; TLS: Total learning score; VFT: Verbal Fluency Test Table 3.
Selected neurocognitive measures were used to examine neurocognitive functioning in the following domains: attention (Trail Making Test A), executive function (Trail Making Test B), verbal working memory (Wechsler Memory Scale
[WMS]-III Digit Span), and speed of processing (Useful Field of View [UFOV]).
6 MRI: * T1 lesion volume High * T2 lesion volume High * Cerebral atrophy Yes TESTS SCORES 2007 WAIS-III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) Max Score Digit Symbol-Coding 7 Block Design 4 Symbol Search 5 Letter-number sequencing 7 WMS-III (Wechsler Memory Scale
) Max Score Logical Memory I 10 Family Pictures I 13 Logical Memory II 11 Family Pictures II 12 Rey Osterrieth Figure (ROCF) Percentile Type of the copy 75 Accuracy of copy 60 Time of copy 75 Immediate recall condition 70 BNT (Boston Naming Test) Raw Score Total Score 58 CTMT (Comprehensive Trail Making Test) Standard.
Secondary outcome measures included the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Wechsler Memory Scale
(WMS-III), and the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT).